Overview of all keyword tags in articles

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This page provides an overview of 1401 tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of tags and narrow the focus to specific items of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Charts

openoffice

OpenOffice.org, commonly known as OOo or OpenOffice, is an open-source application suite whose main components are for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, and databases. It is available for a number of different computer operating systems, is distributed as free software and is written using its own GUI toolkit. It supports the ISO/IEC standard OpenDocument Format (ODF) for data interchange as its default file format, as well as Microsoft Office formats among others. As of November 2009, OpenOffice.org supports over 110 languages. As free software, users are free to download, modify, use and distribute OpenOffice.org. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenOffice.org">Wikipedia article: OpenOffice</a>)

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openurl

OpenURL is a standardized format (Z39.88) of Uniform Resource Locator (URL) intended to enable Internet users to more easily find a copy of a resource that they are allowed to access. Although OpenURL can be used with any kind of resource on the Internet, it is most heavily used by libraries to help connect patrons to subscription content. The OpenURL standard is designed to enable linking from information resources such as abstracting and indexing databases (sources) to library services (targets), such as academic journals, whether online or in printed or other formats. The linking is mediated by "link resolvers", or "link-servers", which parse the elements of an OpenURL and provide links to appropriate targets available through a library by the use of an OpenURL knowledge base. The source that generates an OpenURL is typically a bibliographic citation or bibliographic record in a database that indexes the information resources often found in libraries, such as articles, books, patents, etc. Examples of such databases include Ovid, Web of Science, SciFinder, Modern Languages Association Bibliography and Google Scholar. A target is a resource or service that helps satisfy a user's information needs. Examples of targets include full-text repositories, online journals, online library catalogs and other Web resources and services. The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) has developed OpenURL and its data container (the ContextObject) as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z39.88. On 22 June 2006, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was named the maintenance agency for the standard. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenURL">Wikipedia article: OpenUrl</a>)

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opera

Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by Opera Software. The browser handles common Internet-related tasks such as displaying web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting on IRC, downloading files via BitTorrent, and reading web feeds. Opera is offered free of charge for personal computers and mobile phones. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opera_(web_browser)">Wikipedia article: Opera web browser</a>)

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operating system

An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers, manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer - from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems for personal computers are: Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Unix. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system">Wikipedia article: Operating system</a>)

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opm

The Open Provenance Model OPM is the result of the Provenance Challenge series that was initiated in May 2006, at the first IPAW workshop. OPM was originally crafted in a meeting held in Salt Lake City in August 2007. OPM v1.00 was released to the community in December 2007. The first OPM workshop in June 2008 involved some twenty participants discussing issues related to this specification, and led to a revised specification, referred to as OPM v1.01. From the outset, the original authors' intent has been to define a data model that is open from an inter-operability viewpoint but also with respect to the community of its contributors, reviewers and users. To ensure that these principles are adhered to, an "open source like" governance model for OPM was adopted in June 2009, which led to the development of OPM v1.1, the most recent version of the model, which went under a public revision process (Excerpt from <a href="http://openprovenance.org/">this source</a>)

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opml

OPML (Outline Processor Markup Language) is an XML format for outlines (defined as "a tree, where each node contains a set of named attributes with string values"). Originally developed by Radio UserLand as a native file format for an outliner application, it has since been adopted for other uses, the most common being to exchange lists of web feeds between web feed aggregators. The OPML specification defines an outline as a hierarchical, ordered list of arbitrary elements. The specification is fairly open which makes it suitable for many types of list data. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opml">Wikipedia article: OPML</a>)

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optical character recognition

Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used to convert books and documents into electronic files, to computerize a record-keeping system in an office, or to publish the text on a website. OCR makes it possible to edit the text, search for a word or phrase, store it more compactly, display or print a copy free of scanning artifacts, and apply techniques such as machine translation, text-to-speech and text mining to it. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_character_recognition">Wikipedia article: Optical character recognition</a>)

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osid

Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs) are programmatic interface specifications describing services. These interfaces are specified by the Open Knowledge Initiative (O.K.I.) to implement a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) to achieve interoperability among applications across a varied base of underlying and changing technologies. To preserve the investment in development, program logic is separated from underlying technologies through the use of software interfaces each of which defines a contract between a service consumer and a service provider. This separation is the basis of any valid SOA. While some methods define the service interface boundary at a protocol or server level, OSIDs place the boundary at the application level to effectively insulate the consumer from protocols, server identities, and utility libraries that are in the domain to a service provider resulting in software which is easier to develop, longer lasting, and usable across a wider array of computing environments. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Service_Interface_Definitions">Wikipedia article: Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs)</a>)

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owl

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. The languages are characterised by formal semantics and RDF/XML-based serializations for the Semantic Web. OWL is endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and has attracted academic, medical and commercial interest. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Ontology_Language">Wikipedia article: OWL</a>)

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p/meta

The PMC Project P/Meta has this goal: the exchange of media items or objects between process stages and business entities would benefit significantly from a standard approach to structuring related information, either associated with the media in a separate data repository or embedded (wrapped) with it as electronic metadata. Seminal work is already being carried out by SMPTE on defining the Dynamic Metadata Dictionary, UMIDs, mapping of metadata into transports, and preparation of operational guidelines and engineering recommendations. Complementary work is proposed for the EBU to consider the adoption of a common exchange framework and format between members (and wider) which builds on SMPTE outputs and the additional insights provided by the BBC's Standard Media Exchange Framework. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www2.sub.uni-goettingen.de/cgi-bin/ssgfi/anzeige.pl?db=meta&nr=00... source</a>)

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pageflakes

Pageflakes is an Ajax-based startpage or personal web portal similar to Netvibes, My Yahoo!, iGoogle, Wikpage and Microsoft Live. The site is organized into tabs, each tab containing user-selected modules called Flakes. Each Flake varies in content; information such as RSS/Atom feeds, Calendar, Notes, Web search, weather forecast, del.icio.us bookmarks, Flickr photos, social networking tools like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, email and user-created modules. Pageflakes has 250,000 Flakes and over 130,000 Pagecasts (publicly shared pages created by users with individual URLs). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pageflakes">Wikipedia article: Pageflakes</a>)

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passwords

A password is a secret word or string of characters that is used for authentication, to prove identity or gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password). The password should be kept secret from those not allowed access. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password">Wikipedia article: Password</a>)

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pdi

The Versit Consortium was a multivendor initiative founded by Apple Computer, AT&T, IBM and Siemens in the early 1990s in order to create Personal Data Interchange (PDI) technology, open specifications for exchanging personal data over the Internet, wired and wireless connectivity and Computer Telephony Integration (CTI). The Consortium started a number of projects to deliver open specifications aimed at creating industry standards. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Versit_Consortium">Wikipedia article: Personal data interchange</a>)

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perl

Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions and become widely popular amongst programmers. Larry Wall continues to oversee development of the core language, and its upcoming version, Perl 6. Perl borrows features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, and sed. The language provides powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data length limits of many contemporary Unix tools, facilitating easy manipulation of text files. Perl gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its parsing abilities. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl">Wikipedia article: Perl</a>)

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persistent identifier

An identifier is any label that allows us to find a resource. One of the best-known identifiers is the International Standard Book Number (ISBN), a unique ten-digit number assigned to books and other publications. On the Internet the most widely known identifier is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which allows users to find a resource by listing a protocol, domain name and, in many cases, file location. A persistent identifier is, as the name suggests, an identifier that exists for a very long time. It should at the very least be globally unique and be used as a reference to the resource beyond the resource's lifetime. URLs, although useful, are not very persistent. They only provide a link to the resource's location at the moment in time they are cited, if the resource moves they no longer apply. The issue of 'linkrot' on the Internet (broken links to resources), along with the need for further interoperability has led to the search for more persistent identifiers for digital resources. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/qa-focus/documents/briefings/briefing-80/html/">this source</a>)

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personalisation

Personalization involves using technology to accommodate the differences between individuals. Once confined mainly to the Web, it is increasingly becoming a factor in education, health care (i.e. personalized medicine), television, and in both "business to business" and "business to consumer" settings. Web pages are personalized based on the characteristics (interests, social category, context, ...) of an individual. Personalization implies that the changes are based on implicit data, such as items purchased or pages viewed. The term customization is used instead when the site only uses explicit data such as ratings or preferences. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personalization">Wikipedia article: Personalisation</a>)

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photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems Incorporated. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop">Wikipedia article: Adobe Photoshop</a>)

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php

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications. PHP can be deployed on most web servers and as a standalone interpreter, on almost every operating system and platform free of charge. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PHP">Wikipedia article: PHP</a>)

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pics

The Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) is a specification created by W3C that uses metadata to label webpages to help parents and teachers control what children and students can access on the Internet. The W3C Protocol for Web Description Resources project integrates PICS concepts with RDF. PICS has been superseded by POWDER. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platform_for_Internet_Content_Selection">Wi... article: Platform for Internet Content Selection</a>)

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plain text

In computing, plain text is the contents of an ordinary sequential file readable as textual material without much processing, usually opposed to formatted text. The encoding has traditionally been either ASCII, one of its many derivatives such as ISO/IEC 646 etc., or sometimes EBCDIC. Unicode is today gradually replacing the older ASCII derivatives limited to 7 or 8 bit codes. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plain_text">Wikipedia article: Plain text</a>)

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