Overview of all keyword tags in articles

Inspecting content image: copyright, used under license from shutterstock.com

This page provides an overview of 1398 tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of tags and narrow the focus to specific items of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Charts

operating system

An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers, manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer - from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems for personal computers are: Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Unix. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system">Wikipedia article: Operating system</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

opm

The Open Provenance Model OPM is the result of the Provenance Challenge series that was initiated in May 2006, at the first IPAW workshop. OPM was originally crafted in a meeting held in Salt Lake City in August 2007. OPM v1.00 was released to the community in December 2007. The first OPM workshop in June 2008 involved some twenty participants discussing issues related to this specification, and led to a revised specification, referred to as OPM v1.01. From the outset, the original authors' intent has been to define a data model that is open from an inter-operability viewpoint but also with respect to the community of its contributors, reviewers and users. To ensure that these principles are adhered to, an "open source like" governance model for OPM was adopted in June 2009, which led to the development of OPM v1.1, the most recent version of the model, which went under a public revision process (Excerpt from <a href="http://openprovenance.org/">this source</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

opml

OPML (Outline Processor Markup Language) is an XML format for outlines (defined as "a tree, where each node contains a set of named attributes with string values"). Originally developed by Radio UserLand as a native file format for an outliner application, it has since been adopted for other uses, the most common being to exchange lists of web feeds between web feed aggregators. The OPML specification defines an outline as a hierarchical, ordered list of arbitrary elements. The specification is fairly open which makes it suitable for many types of list data. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opml">Wikipedia article: OPML</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

optical character recognition

Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used to convert books and documents into electronic files, to computerize a record-keeping system in an office, or to publish the text on a website. OCR makes it possible to edit the text, search for a word or phrase, store it more compactly, display or print a copy free of scanning artifacts, and apply techniques such as machine translation, text-to-speech and text mining to it. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_character_recognition">Wikipedia article: Optical character recognition</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

osid

Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs) are programmatic interface specifications describing services. These interfaces are specified by the Open Knowledge Initiative (O.K.I.) to implement a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) to achieve interoperability among applications across a varied base of underlying and changing technologies. To preserve the investment in development, program logic is separated from underlying technologies through the use of software interfaces each of which defines a contract between a service consumer and a service provider. This separation is the basis of any valid SOA. While some methods define the service interface boundary at a protocol or server level, OSIDs place the boundary at the application level to effectively insulate the consumer from protocols, server identities, and utility libraries that are in the domain to a service provider resulting in software which is easier to develop, longer lasting, and usable across a wider array of computing environments. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Service_Interface_Definitions">Wikipedia article: Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs)</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

owl

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. The languages are characterised by formal semantics and RDF/XML-based serializations for the Semantic Web. OWL is endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and has attracted academic, medical and commercial interest. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Ontology_Language">Wikipedia article: OWL</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

p/meta

The PMC Project P/Meta has this goal: the exchange of media items or objects between process stages and business entities would benefit significantly from a standard approach to structuring related information, either associated with the media in a separate data repository or embedded (wrapped) with it as electronic metadata. Seminal work is already being carried out by SMPTE on defining the Dynamic Metadata Dictionary, UMIDs, mapping of metadata into transports, and preparation of operational guidelines and engineering recommendations. Complementary work is proposed for the EBU to consider the adoption of a common exchange framework and format between members (and wider) which builds on SMPTE outputs and the additional insights provided by the BBC's Standard Media Exchange Framework. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www2.sub.uni-goettingen.de/cgi-bin/ssgfi/anzeige.pl?db=meta&nr=00... source</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

pageflakes

Pageflakes is an Ajax-based startpage or personal web portal similar to Netvibes, My Yahoo!, iGoogle, Wikpage and Microsoft Live. The site is organized into tabs, each tab containing user-selected modules called Flakes. Each Flake varies in content; information such as RSS/Atom feeds, Calendar, Notes, Web search, weather forecast, del.icio.us bookmarks, Flickr photos, social networking tools like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, email and user-created modules. Pageflakes has 250,000 Flakes and over 130,000 Pagecasts (publicly shared pages created by users with individual URLs). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pageflakes">Wikipedia article: Pageflakes</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

passwords

A password is a secret word or string of characters that is used for authentication, to prove identity or gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password). The password should be kept secret from those not allowed access. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password">Wikipedia article: Password</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

pdi

The Versit Consortium was a multivendor initiative founded by Apple Computer, AT&T, IBM and Siemens in the early 1990s in order to create Personal Data Interchange (PDI) technology, open specifications for exchanging personal data over the Internet, wired and wireless connectivity and Computer Telephony Integration (CTI). The Consortium started a number of projects to deliver open specifications aimed at creating industry standards. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Versit_Consortium">Wikipedia article: Personal data interchange</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

perl

Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions and become widely popular amongst programmers. Larry Wall continues to oversee development of the core language, and its upcoming version, Perl 6. Perl borrows features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, and sed. The language provides powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data length limits of many contemporary Unix tools, facilitating easy manipulation of text files. Perl gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its parsing abilities. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perl">Wikipedia article: Perl</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

persistent identifier

An identifier is any label that allows us to find a resource. One of the best-known identifiers is the International Standard Book Number (ISBN), a unique ten-digit number assigned to books and other publications. On the Internet the most widely known identifier is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which allows users to find a resource by listing a protocol, domain name and, in many cases, file location. A persistent identifier is, as the name suggests, an identifier that exists for a very long time. It should at the very least be globally unique and be used as a reference to the resource beyond the resource's lifetime. URLs, although useful, are not very persistent. They only provide a link to the resource's location at the moment in time they are cited, if the resource moves they no longer apply. The issue of 'linkrot' on the Internet (broken links to resources), along with the need for further interoperability has led to the search for more persistent identifiers for digital resources. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/qa-focus/documents/briefings/briefing-80/html/">this source</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

personalisation

Personalization involves using technology to accommodate the differences between individuals. Once confined mainly to the Web, it is increasingly becoming a factor in education, health care (i.e. personalized medicine), television, and in both "business to business" and "business to consumer" settings. Web pages are personalized based on the characteristics (interests, social category, context, ...) of an individual. Personalization implies that the changes are based on implicit data, such as items purchased or pages viewed. The term customization is used instead when the site only uses explicit data such as ratings or preferences. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personalization">Wikipedia article: Personalisation</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems Incorporated. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop">Wikipedia article: Adobe Photoshop</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

php

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications. PHP can be deployed on most web servers and as a standalone interpreter, on almost every operating system and platform free of charge. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PHP">Wikipedia article: PHP</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

pics

The Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) is a specification created by W3C that uses metadata to label webpages to help parents and teachers control what children and students can access on the Internet. The W3C Protocol for Web Description Resources project integrates PICS concepts with RDF. PICS has been superseded by POWDER. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platform_for_Internet_Content_Selection">Wi... article: Platform for Internet Content Selection</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

plain text

In computing, plain text is the contents of an ordinary sequential file readable as textual material without much processing, usually opposed to formatted text. The encoding has traditionally been either ASCII, one of its many derivatives such as ISO/IEC 646 etc., or sometimes EBCDIC. Unicode is today gradually replacing the older ASCII derivatives limited to 7 or 8 bit codes. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plain_text">Wikipedia article: Plain text</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

plone

Plone is a free and open source content management system built on top of the Zope application server. In principle, Plone can be used for any kind of website, including blogs, internet sites, webshops and internal websites. It is also well positioned to be used as a document publishing system and groupware collaboration tool. The strengths of Plone are its flexible and adaptable workflow, very good security, extensibility, high usability and flexibility. Plone is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL) and is designed to be extensible. Major development is conducted periodically during special meetings called Plone Sprints. Additional functionality is added to Plone with Products, which may be distributed through the Plone website or otherwise. The Plone Foundation holds and enforces all copyrights and trademarks. Plone also has legal backing from the council of the Software Freedom Law Center. MediaWiki's "Monobook" layout is based partially on the Plone style sheets. High-profile public sector users include the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Brazilian Government, United Nations, City of Bern (Switzerland), New South Wales Government (Australia), and European Environment Agency. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plone_(software)">Wikipedia article: Plone</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

png

Portable Network Graphics is a bitmapped image format and video codec that employs lossless data compression. PNG was created to improve upon and replace GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) as an image-file format not requiring a patent license. The PNG acronym is optionally recursive, unofficially standing for PNG's Not GIF. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portable_Network_Graphics">Wikipedia article: PNG</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

podcast

A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication. The word replaced webcast in common vernacular due to the fame of the iPod and its role in the rising popularity and innovation of web feeds. The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other means of accessing media files over the Internet, such as direct download, or streamed webcasting. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podcast">Wikipedia article: Podcast</a>)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: [term_node_prcnt_1]%.

Pages