Emerging terms: 'buzz' tags with highest recency score (RS) over last 52 weeks

This page provides an overview of 617 keyword tags in Ariadne, ordered by recency score.

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openoffice

OpenOffice.org, commonly known as OOo or OpenOffice, is an open-source application suite whose main components are for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, and databases. It is available for a number of different computer operating systems, is distributed as free software and is written using its own GUI toolkit. It supports the ISO/IEC standard OpenDocument Format (ODF) for data interchange as its default file format, as well as Microsoft Office formats among others. As of November 2009, OpenOffice.org supports over 110 languages. As free software, users are free to download, modify, use and distribute OpenOffice.org. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenOffice.org">Wikipedia article: OpenOffice</a>)

openid

OpenID is an open standard that describes how users can be authenticated in a decentralized manner, obviating the need for services to provide their own ad hoc systems and allowing users to consolidate their digital identities. The OpenID protocol does not rely on a central authority to authenticate a user's identity. Moreover, neither services nor the OpenID standard may mandate a specific means by which to authenticate users, allowing for approaches ranging from the common (such as passwords) to the novel (such as smart cards or biometrics). The term OpenID may also refer to an ID as specified in the OpenID standard; these IDs take the form of a unique URL, and are managed by some 'OpenID provider' that handles authentication. OpenID authentication is now used and provided by several large websites. Providers include AOL, BBC, Google, IBM, MySpace, Orange, PayPal, VeriSign, LiveJournal, and Yahoo! (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenID">Wikipedia article: OpenID</a>)

opendocument

The Open Document Format for Office Applications (also known as OpenDocument or ODF) is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. While the specifications were originally developed by Sun Microsystems, the standard was developed by the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC - OASIS ODF TC, committee of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium and based on the XML format originally created and implemented by the OpenOffice.org office suite (see OpenOffice.org XML). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument">Wikipedia article: OpenDocument presentation</a>)

open standard

An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process). There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage. The terms "open" and "standard" have a wide range of meanings associated with their usage. There are a number of definitions of open standards which emphasize different aspects of openness, including of the resulting specification, the openness of the drafting process, and the ownership of rights in the standard. The term "standard" is sometimes restricted to technologies approved by formalized committees that are open to participation by all interested parties and operate on a consensus basis. The definitions of the term "open standard" used by academics, the European Union and some of its member governments or parliaments such as Denmark, France, and Spain preclude open standards requiring fees for use, as do the New Zealand, South African and the Venezuelan governments. On the standard organisation side, the W3C ensures that its specifications can be implemented on a Royalty-Free (RF) basis. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_standard">Wikipedia article: Open standard</a>)

open source

The term open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials. Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology. Before the term open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code. Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. Subsequently, the new phrase "open-source software" was born to describe the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_source">Wikipedia article: Open source</a>)

open education

Open education is a collective term to describe institutional practices and programmatic initiatives that broaden access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems. The qualifier 'open' of open education refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning. One aspect of openness in or 'opening up' education is the development and adoption of open educational resources. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_education">Wikipedia article: Open Education</a>)

open document

The Open Document Format for Office Applications (also known as OpenDocument or ODF) is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. While the specifications were originally developed by Sun Microsystems, the standard was developed by the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC - OASIS ODF TC, committee of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium and based on the XML format originally created and implemented by the OpenOffice.org office suite (see OpenOffice.org XML). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument">Wikipedia article: OpenDocument presentation</a>)

open data

Open data is a philosophy and practice requiring that certain data be freely available to everyone, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. It has a similar ethos to a number of other "Open" movements and communities such as open source and open access. However these are not logically linked and many combinations of practice are found. The practice and ideology itself is well established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science) but the term "open data" itself is recent. Much of the emphasis in this entry is on data from scientific research and from the data-driven web. In some cases open data may be considered as more properly Open Metadata and there is not yet a consistent formalisation. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_science_data">Wikipedia article: Open data</a>)

open archives initiative

The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an attempt to build a "low-barrier interoperability framework" for archives (institutional repositories) containing digital content (digital libraries). It allows people (Service Providers) to harvest metadata (from Data Providers). This metadata is used to provide "value-added services", often by combining different data sets. Initially, the initiative has been involved in the development of a technological framework and interoperability standards specifically for enhancing access to e-print archives, in order to increase the availability of scholarly communication; OAI is, therefore, closely related to the Open access publishing movement. However, the developed technology and standards are applicable in a much broader domain than scholarly publishing alone. The OAI technical infrastructure, specified in the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), currently in version 2.0, defines a mechanism for data providers to expose their metadata. This protocol mandates that individual archives map their metadata to the Dublin Core, a simple and common metadata set for this purpose. In other words, the relation of OAI compatibility to Dublin Core is that OAI standards allow a common way to provide content, and part of those standards is that the content has metadata that describes the items in Dublin Core format. OAI has recently begun work on the Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) project which defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Archives_Initiative">Wikipedia article: Open Archives Initiative</a>)

open access

Open access (OA) refers to unrestricted online access to articles published in scholarly journals, and increasingly also book chapters or monographs. Open Access comes in two forms, Gratis versus Libre: Gratis OA is no-cost online access, while Libre OA offers some additional usage rights. Open content is similar to OA, but usually includes the right to modify the work, whereas in scholarly publishing it is usual to keep an article's content intact and to associate it with a fixed author. Creative Commons licenses can be used to specify usage rights. The Open Access idea can be extended to the learning objects and resources provided in e-learning. OA can be provided in two ways: 1) "Green OA" is provided by authors publishing in any journal and then self-archiving their postprints in their institutional repository or on some other OA website. Green OA journal publishers endorse immediate OA self-archiving by their authors. 2) "Gold OA" is provided by authors publishing in an open access journal that provides immediate OA to all of its articles on the publisher's website. (Hybrid open access journals provide Gold OA only for those individual articles for which their authors (or their author's institution or funder) pay an OA publishing fee.) (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access_(publishing)">Wikipedia article: Open access publishing</a>)

opac

An Online Public Access Catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply Library Catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Users search a library catalog principally to locate books and other material physically located at a library. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_public_access_catalog">Wikipedia article: OPAC</a>)

ontologies

In computer science and information science, an ontology is a formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the entities within that domain, and may be used to describe the domain. Its meaning is vastly different from the word Ontology in philosophy. In theory, an ontology is a "formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation". An ontology provides a shared vocabulary, which can be used to model a domain - that is, the type of objects and/or concepts that exist, and their properties and relations. Ontologies are the structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, systems engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, enterprise bookmarking, and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_(information_science)">Wikipedia article: Ontology</a>)

onix-pl

ONIX for Publications Licenses (ONIX-PL) is a family of standard XML messaging protocols for exchanging licensing information that builds on the work of the Digital Libraries Federation Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) and NISO's License Expression Working Group (LEWG). (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.niso.org/workrooms/onixpl">this source</a>)

onix

ONIX (ONline Information eXchange) currently refers to any of three XML formats for use primarily within the book trade. ONIX was originally a single standard for capturing bibliographic data relating to books. That standard is now referred to as ONIX for Books and has been expanded to include better support for eBooks. A second ONIX standard, ONIX for Serials has been added to capture metadata pertaining to serialised publications. There is also a third standard, ONIX for Publications Licenses (ONIX-PL), designed to handle the licenses under which libraries and other institutions use digital resources. According to EDItEUR, one of the principal organisations behind the creation of the ONIX standards, ONIX is: "an XML-based family of international standards intended to support computer-to-computer communication between parties involved in creating, distributing, licensing or otherwise making available intellectual property in published form, whether physical or digital. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onix_(publishing_protocol)">Wikipedia article: Onix</a>)

ogg theora

Theora is a free lossy video compression format. It is developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation and distributed without licensing fees alongside their other free and open media projects, including the Vorbis audio format and the Ogg container. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theora">Wikipedia article: Theora</a>)

ogg

Ogg is a free, open standard container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The creators of the Ogg format state that it is unrestricted by software patents and is designed to provide for efficient streaming and manipulation of high quality digital multimedia. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogg">Wikipedia article: Ogg</a>)

oer

Open educational resources (OER) are "digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research." Being a production and dissemination mode, OER are not involved in awarding degrees nor in providing academic or administrative support to students. However, OER materials are beginning to get integrated into open and distance education. Some OER producers have involved themselves in social media to increase their content visibility and reputation. OER include different kinds of digital assets. Learning content includes courses, course materials, content modules, learning objects, collections, and journals. Tools include software that supports the creation, delivery, use and improvement of open learning content, searching and organization of content, content and learning management systems, content development tools, and on-line learning communities. Implementation resources include intellectual property licenses that govern open publishing of materials, design-principles, and localization of content. They also include materials on best practices such as stories, publication, techniques, methods, processes, incentives, and distribution. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources">Wikipedia article: Open Educational Resources</a>)

odrl

ODRL (Open Digital Rights Language) is an XML-based standard Rights Expression Language (REL) used in Digital Rights Management systems and open content management systems. ODRL is managed by an open organization that's open to public participation. It has created a profile that supports Creative Commons licenses and is working on a profile for geospatial data and a profile for Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) metadata. The ODRL Version 2.0 is currently working on major revisions of the new version of ODRL. There is at least one open source implementation of ODRL available.[citation needed] The Open Mobile Alliance has adopted ODRL as the REL used in their DRM specifications and new mobile phone handsets support this ODRL Profile. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ODRL">Wikipedia article: ODRL</a>)

odp

The Open Document Format for Office Applications (also known as OpenDocument or ODF) is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. While the specifications were originally developed by Sun Microsystems, the standard was developed by the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC - OASIS ODF TC, committee of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium and based on the XML format originally created and implemented by the OpenOffice.org office suite (see OpenOffice.org XML). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument">Wikipedia article: OpenDocument presentation</a>)

ocr

Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used to convert books and documents into electronic files, to computerize a record-keeping system in an office, or to publish the text on a website. OCR makes it possible to edit the text, search for a word or phrase, store it more compactly, display or print a copy free of scanning artifacts, and apply techniques such as machine translation, text-to-speech and text mining to it. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_character_recognition">Wikipedia article: Optical character recognition</a>)

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