Emerging terms: 'buzz' tags with highest recency score (RS) over last 52 weeks

This page provides an overview of 617 keyword tags in Ariadne, ordered by recency score.

Note: filters may be applied to display a sub-set of tags in this category; see FAQs on filtering for usage tips. Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Description Charts

cataloguing

A library catalog (or library catalogue) is a register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations. A bibliographic item can be any information entity (e.g., books, computer files, graphics, realia, cartographic materials, etc.) that is considered library material (e.g., a single novel in an anthology), or a group of library materials (e.g., a trilogy), or linked from the catalog (e.g., a webpage) as far as it is relevant to the catalog and to the users (patrons) of the library. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_catalog">Wikipedia article: Library catalogue</a>)

cd-rom

A CD-ROM (acronym of "Compact Disc Read-only memory") is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. The 1985 'Yellow Book' standard developed by Sony and Philips adapted the format to hold any form of binary data. CD-ROMs are popularly used to distribute computer software, including video games and multimedia applications, though any data can be stored (up to the capacity limit of a disc). Some CDs hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660 format PC CD-ROMs). These are called enhanced CDs. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD-ROM">Wikipedia article: CD-ROM</a>)

cdwa

Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) describes the content of art databases by articulating a conceptual framework for describing and accessing information about works of art, architecture, other material culture, groups and collections of works, and related images. The CDWA includes 512 categories and subcategories. A small subset of categories are considered core in that they represent the minimum information necessary to identify and describe a work. The CDWA includes discussions, basic guidelines for cataloging, and examples. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categories_for_the_Description_of_Works_of_... article: CDWA</a>)

cerif

CERIF (Common European Research Information Format) emerged first as a simple standard not unlike a library catalogue card or the present DC (Dublin Core Metadata Standard) and was intended as a data exchange format. It was based on records describing projects, with persons and organisational units as attributes. However, it was soon realised that in practice this CERIF91 standard was inadequate: it was too rigid in format, did not handle repeating groups of information, was not multilingual / multi character set and did not represent in a sufficiently rich way the universe of interest. A new group of experts was convened and CERIF2000 was generated. Its essential features are: (a) it has the concept of objects or entities with attributes such as project, person, organisational unit; (b) it supports n:m relationships between them (and recursively on any of them) using 'linking relations' thus providing rich semantics including roles and time; (c) it is fully internationalised in language and character set; (d) it is extensible without prejudicing the core datamodel thus providing guaranteed interoperability at least at the core level but not precluding even richer intercommunication. It is designed for use both for data exchange (data file transfer) and for heterogeneous distributed query / result environments. With CERIF2004, minor improvements in consistency have been released. With CERIF2006 substantial improvements have been implemented with the model, concerning in particular the introduction of a so-called Semantic Layer, that makes the model flexible and scalable for application in very heterogeneous environments. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.eurocris.org/Index.php?page=CERIFintroduction&t=1">this source</a>)

character encoding

A character encoding system consists of a code that pairs each character from a given repertoire with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the transmission of data (generally numbers and / or text) through telecommunication networks or storage of text in computers. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_encoding">Wikipedia article: Character encoding</a>)

chrome

Google Chrome is a web browser developed by Google that uses the WebKit layout engine. It was first released as a beta version for Microsoft Windows on 2 September 2008, and the public stable release was on 11 December 2008. The name is derived from the graphical user interface frame, or "chrome", of web browsers. As of January 2011, Chrome was the third most widely used browser, and passed the 10% worldwide usage share of web browsers, according to Net Applications. In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome's source code, including its V8 JavaScript engine, as an open source project entitled Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to help convert the browser to the Mac OS X and Linux operating systems. Google also expressed hope that other browsers would adopt V8 to improve web application performance. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license, which allows portions to be incorporated into both open source and closed source software programs. Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open source licenses. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Chrome">Wikipedia article: Chrome</a>)

cidoc-crm

The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) provides an extensible ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage and museum documentation. It is the international standard (ISO 21127:2006) for the controlled exchange of cultural heritage information. Archives, libraries, museums, and other cultural institutions are encouraged to use the CIDOC CRM to enhance accessibility to museum-related information and knowledge. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CIDOC-CRM">Wikipedia article: CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model</a>)

cloud computing

Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. In the traditional model of computing, both data and software are fully contained on the user's computer; in cloud computing, the user's computer may contain almost no software or data (perhaps a minimal operating system and web browser only), serving as little more than a display terminal for processes occurring on a network of computers far away. A common shorthand for a provider's cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud". (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing">Wikipedia article: Cloud computing</a>)

cocoa

Cocoa is one of Apple Inc.'s native object-oriented application programming interfaces (APIs) for the Mac OS X operating system and - along with the Cocoa Touch extension for gesture recognition and animation - for applications of iOS on Apple's iPhone and iPad product lines. Cocoa applications are typically developed using the development tools provided by Apple, specifically Xcode (formerly Project Builder) and Interface Builder, using the Objective-C language. However, the Cocoa programming environment can be accessed using other tools, such as Clozure CL, LispWorks, Object Pascal, Python, Perl, Ruby, and AppleScript with the aid of bridging mechanisms such as PasCocoa, PyObjC, CamelBones and RubyCocoa. An implementation of the Ruby language, called MacRuby, which does away with the requirement for a bridging mechanism, is under development by Apple, while Nu is a Lisp-like language which can be used with Cocoa without a bridge. It is also possible to write Objective-C Cocoa programs in a simple text editor and build it manually with GCC or clang from the command line or from a makefile. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cocoa_(API)">Wikipedia article: Cocoa</a>)

codec

A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal. The word codec is a portmanteau of 'compressor-decompressor' or, more commonly, 'coder-decoder'. A codec (the program) should not be confused with a coding or compression format or standard - a format is a document (the standard), a way of storing data, while a codec is a program (an implementation) which can read or write such files. In practice "codec" is sometimes used loosely to refer to formats, however. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codec">Wikipedia article: codec</a>)

collection description

The description of collections is important in the context of network library services and an important underpinning for developing a collective resource. The creation of collection descriptions allows the owners or curators of collections to disclose information about their existence and availability to interested parties. Although collection descriptions may take the form of unstructured textual documents (for example a set of Web pages describing a collection), there are significant advantages in describing collections using structured, open and standardised formats. Such descriptions would enable: users to discover and locate collections of interest; users to perform searches across multiple collections in a controlled way; software to perform such tasks on behalf of users, based on known user preferences. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/rslp/proposal/">this source</a>)

collection development

Library collection development is the process of meeting the information needs of the people (a service population) in a timely and economical manner using information resources locally held, as well as from other organizations. According to the The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), acquisition and collection development focuses on methodological and topical themes pertaining to acquisition of print and other analogue library materials (by purchase, exchange, gift, legal deposit), and the licensing and purchase of electronic information resources. Collections are developed by librarians and library staff by buying or otherwise acquiring materials over a period, based on assessment of the information needs of the library's users. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collection_development">Wikipedia article: Collection development</a>)

common cartridge

The Common Cartridge defines a new package interchange format for learning content, able to run on any compliant LMS platform. Version 1.0 supports the following features: rich content (html, xml, web links, media files); integrated assessments; discussion forums; authorisation for protected content. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.imsglobal.org/commoncartridge.html">this source</a>)

communications protocol

A communications protocol (also known as a network protocol) is a formal description of digital message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications. Protocols may include signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities. A protocol describes the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication and may be implemented in hardware or software, or both. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_protocol">Wikipedia article: Network protocol</a>)

computer programming

Computer programming (often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging / troubleshooting, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language. The purpose of programming is to create a program that exhibits a certain desired behavior. The process of writing source code often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_programming">Wikipedia article: Computer programming</a>)

content licence

The verb license or grant licence means to give permission. The noun license (American English) or licence (British English) refers to that permission as well as to the document recording that permission. A license may be granted by a party ("licensor") to another party ("licensee") as an element of an agreement between those parties. A shorthand definition of a license is "an authorization (by the licensor) to use the licensed material (by the licensee)." In particular a license may be issued by authorities, to allow an activity that would otherwise be forbidden. It may require paying a fee and/or proving a capability. The requirement may also serve to keep the authorities informed on a type of activity, and to give them the opportunity to set conditions and limitations. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/License">Wikipedia article: License</a>)

content management

Content management, or CM, is the set of processes and technologies that support the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium. In recent times this information is typically referred to as content or, to be precise, digital content. Digital content may take the form of text, such as documents, multimedia files, such as audio or video files, or any other file type which follows a content lifecycle which requires management. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management">Wikipedia article: Content management</a>)

content management interoperability services

Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) is a specification for improving interoperability between Enterprise Content Management systems. OASIS approved CMIS as an OASIS Specification on May 1, 2010. CMIS provides a common data model covering typed files, folders with generic properties that can be set or read. In addition there may be an access control system, and a checkout and version control facility, and the ability to define generic relations. There is a set of generic services for modifying and querying the data model, and several protocol bindings for these services, including SOAP and Representational State Transfer (REST), using the Atom convention. The model is based on common architectures of document management systems. Although initiated by AIIM, CMIS is now being administered by the OASIS standards body. Participants in the process include Adobe Systems Incorporated, Alfresco, EMC, eXo, FatWire, HP, IBM, ISIS Papyrus, Liferay, Microsoft, Open Text, Oracle and SAP. The standard is available for public comment at OASIS. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_Management_Interoperability_Service... article: Content Management Interoperability Services</a>)

content negotiation

Content negotiation is a mechanism defined in the HTTP specification that makes it possible to serve different versions of a document (or more generally, a resource) at the same URI, so that user agents can specify which version fit their capabilities the best. One classical use of this mechanism is to serve an image in GIF or PNG format, so that a browser that cannot display PNG images (e.g. MS Internet Explorer 4) will be served the GIF version. To summarize how this works, when a user agent submits a request to a server, the user agent informs the server what media types it understands with ratings of how well it understands them. More precisely, the user agent provides an Accept HTTP header that lists acceptable media types and associated quality factors. The server is then able to supply the version of the resource that best fits the user agent's needs. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_negotiation">Wikipedia article: Content negotiation</a>)

content packaging

A content package is a file containing content and metadata. A content package is used in e-learning to define some learning content or an assessment that can be delivered, for example by a Learning Management System. It's a standard way of describing learning content that can be read by many programs. The most widely used content packaging format is that defined by IMS Global, which uses an XML manifest file called imsmanifest.xml wrapped up inside a zip file. The learning content itself is either included in the zip file if it is HTML or other media that can run on its own, or else is referenced as a URL from within the manifest. The IMS format was used by SCORM to define their packaging format, and typically every SCORM content object (SCO) is defined by a content package. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_package">Wikipedia article: Content package</a>)

Pages

Subscribe to Emerging terms: 'buzz' tags with highest recency score (RS) over last 52 weeks