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'Buzz' tags used most often over past 52 weeks (RFU)

This page provides an overview of 228 keyword tags in Ariadne, ordered by recent frequent usage.

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Term Description Recent frequent usage (RFU)sort icon Charts

dspace

DSpace is an open source software package that provides the tools for management of digital assets, and is commonly used as the basis for an institutional repository. It supports a wide variety of data, including books, theses, 3D digital scans of objects, photographs, film, video, research data sets and other forms of content. The data is arranged as community collections of items, which bundle bitstreams together. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Dspace)

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e-science

E-Science (or eScience) is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid. The term was created by John Taylor, the Director General of the United Kingdom's Office of Science and Technology in 1999 and was used to describe a large funding initiative starting in November 2000. Examples of the kind of science include social simulations, particle physics, earth sciences and bio-informatics. Particle physics has a well developed e-Science infrastructure in particular because of its need for adequate computing facilities for the analysis of results and storage of data originating from the CERN Large Hadron Collider, which started taking data in 2009. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: E-Science)

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google books

Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print) is a service from Google that searches the full text of books that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition, and stored in its digital database. The service was formerly known as Google Print when it was introduced at the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004. Google's Library Project, also now known as Google Book Search, was announced in December 2004. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Google Books)

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intranet

An intranet is a computer network that uses Internet Protocol technology to securely share any part of an organization's information or network operating system within that organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization. Sometimes, the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a more extensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure. It may host multiple private websites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration. Any of the well known Internet protocols may be found in an intranet, such as HTTP (web services), SMTP (e-mail), and FTP (file transfer protocol). Internet technologies are often deployed to provide modern interfaces to legacy information systems hosting corporate data. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Intranet)

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jacs

The Joint Academic Classification of Subjects (JACS) system is used by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) in the United Kingdom to classify academic subjects, especially for undergraduate degrees. A JACS code for a single subject consists of a letter and three numbers. The letter represents the broad subject classification and subsequent numbers represent further details, similar to the Dewey Decimal System. For example, F represents the Physical Sciences, F300 Physics, F330 Environmental Physics and F331 Atmospheric Physics. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Joint Academic Classification of Subjects (JACS))

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learning design

Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically (process of teaching) and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: 1) analysis, 2) design, 3) development, 4) implementation, and 5) evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Instructional design)

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librarything

LibraryThing is a social cataloging web application for storing and sharing book catalogs and various types of book metadata. It is used by individuals, authors, libraries and publishers. Based in Portland, Maine, LibraryThing was developed by Tim Spalding and went live on August 29, 2005. As of April 2011 it has over 1,300,000 users and more than 61 million books catalogued. The primary feature of LibraryThing is the cataloging of books by importing data from libraries through Z39.50 connections and from six Amazon.com stores. Library sources supply MARC and Dublin Core records to LT; users can import information from 690 libraries, including the Library of Congress, National Library of Australia, the Canadian National Catalogue, the British Library, and Yale University. Should a record not be available from any of these sources, it is also possible to add the book information by using a blank form. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: LibraryThing)

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mobile phone

A mobile phone (also called mobile, cellular telephone, cell phone, or hand phone (in Southeast Asian English)) is an electronic device used to make mobile telephone calls across a wide geographic area. Mobile phones are different from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within a limited range of a fixed land line, for example within a home or an office. A mobile phone can make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed-line phones across the world. It does this by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile network operator. In addition to functioning as a telephone, a modern mobile phone typically supports additional services such as SMS (or text) messaging, MMS, e-mail and Internet access; short-range wireless (infrared or Bluetooth) communications; as well as business and gaming applications, and photography. Mobile phones that offer advanced computing abilities are referred to as smartphones. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Mobile phone)

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oai-pmh

OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) is a protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative. It is used to harvest (or collect) the metadata descriptions of the records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives. An implementation of OAI-PMH must support representing metadata in Dublin Core, but may also support additional representations. The protocol is usually just referred to as the OAI Protocol. OAI-PMH uses XML over HTTP. The current version is 2.0, updated in 2008. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: OAI-PMH)

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open archives initiative

The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an attempt to build a "low-barrier interoperability framework" for archives (institutional repositories) containing digital content (digital libraries). It allows people (Service Providers) to harvest metadata (from Data Providers). This metadata is used to provide "value-added services", often by combining different data sets. Initially, the initiative has been involved in the development of a technological framework and interoperability standards specifically for enhancing access to e-print archives, in order to increase the availability of scholarly communication; OAI is, therefore, closely related to the Open access publishing movement. However, the developed technology and standards are applicable in a much broader domain than scholarly publishing alone. The OAI technical infrastructure, specified in the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), currently in version 2.0, defines a mechanism for data providers to expose their metadata. This protocol mandates that individual archives map their metadata to the Dublin Core, a simple and common metadata set for this purpose. In other words, the relation of OAI compatibility to Dublin Core is that OAI standards allow a common way to provide content, and part of those standards is that the content has metadata that describes the items in Dublin Core format. OAI has recently begun work on the Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) project which defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Open Archives Initiative)

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operating system

An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers, manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer - from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems for personal computers are: Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Unix. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Operating system)

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optical character recognition

Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the mechanical or electronic translation of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used to convert books and documents into electronic files, to computerize a record-keeping system in an office, or to publish the text on a website. OCR makes it possible to edit the text, search for a word or phrase, store it more compactly, display or print a copy free of scanning artifacts, and apply techniques such as machine translation, text-to-speech and text mining to it. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Optical character recognition)

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owl

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies. The languages are characterised by formal semantics and RDF/XML-based serializations for the Semantic Web. OWL is endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and has attracted academic, medical and commercial interest. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: OWL)

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php

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. For this purpose, PHP code is embedded into the HTML source document and interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the web page document. It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications. PHP can be deployed on most web servers and as a standalone interpreter, on almost every operating system and platform free of charge. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: PHP)

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podcast

A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication. The word replaced webcast in common vernacular due to the fame of the iPod and its role in the rising popularity and innovation of web feeds. The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other means of accessing media files over the Internet, such as direct download, or streamed webcasting. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Podcast)

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preservation metadata

Preservation metadata is an essential component of most digital preservation strategies. As an increasing proportion of the world's information output shifts from analog to digital form, it is necessary to develop new strategies to preserve this information for the long-term. Preservation metadata is information that supports and documents the digital preservation process. Preservation metadata is sometimes considered a subset of technical or administrative metadata. Preservation metadata stores technical details on the format, structure and use of the digital content, the history of all actions performed on the resource including changes and decisions, the authenticity information such as technical features or custody history, and the responsibilities and rights information applicable to preservation actions. Preservation metadata is access-centered and should accomplish four themes: include details about files and instructions for use; document all updates or actions that have occurred to an object; show provenance and demonstrate current and future custody; list details on the individual(s) who are responsible for the preservation of the object. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Preservation metadata)

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purl

A persistent uniform resource locator (PURL) is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) (i.e. location-based Uniform Resource Identifier or URI) that is used to redirect to the location of the requested Web resource. PURLs redirect HTTP clients using HTTP status codes. PURLs are used to curate the URL resolution process, thus solving the problem of transitory URIs in location-based URI schemes like HTTP. Technically the string resolution on PURL is like SEF URL resolution. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: PURL)

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smartphone

A smartphone is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone. Smartphones and feature phones may be thought of as handheld computers integrated with a mobile telephone, but while most feature phones are able to run applications based on platforms such as Java ME, a smartphone allows the user to run and preemptively multitask applications that are native to the underlying hardware. Smartphones run complete operating system software providing a platform for application developers. Thus, they combine the functions of a camera phone and a personal digital assistant (PDA). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Smartphone)

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tag cloud

A tag cloud (keyword cloud, or weighted list in visual design) is a visual depiction of user-generated tags, or simply the word content of a site, typically used to describe the content of web sites. Tags are usually single words and are normally listed alphabetically, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color. Thus, it is possible to find a tag alphabetically and by popularity. The tags are usually hyperlinks that lead to a collection of items that are associated with a tag. Sometimes, further visual properties are manipulated, such as the font color, intensity, or weight. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Tag cloud)

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taxonomy

Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek: taxis "arrangement" and Ancient Greek: nomia "method") is the practice and science of classification or the result of it. Taxonomy uses taxonomic units, known as taxa (singular taxon). A resulting taxonomy, a taxonomy, or taxonomic scheme, is a particular classification ("the taxonomy of ..."), arranged in a hierarchical structure or classification scheme. Typically this is organized by supertype-subtype relationships, also called generalization-specialization relationships, or less formally, parent-child relationships, typically indicated by the phrase 'is a kind of' or 'is a subtype of'. In such an inheritance relationship, the subtype by definition has the same properties, behaviours, and constraints as the supertype plus one or more additional properties, behaviours, or constraints. For example: a bicycle is a kind of vehicle, so any bicycle is also a vehicle, but not every vehicle is a bicycle. Therefore a subtype needs to satisfy more constraints than its supertype. Thus to be a bicycle is more constraint than to be a vehicle. If other kinds of relationships between concepts are also included, a taxonomy is extended into an ontology. Thus various ontologies also include a taxonomy. This holds especially for the upper level ontologies (arrangements of generic concepts). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Taxonomy)

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web standards

Web standards is a general term for the formal standards and other technical specifications that define and describe aspects of the World Wide Web. In recent years, the term has been more frequently associated with the trend of endorsing a set of standardized best practices for building web sites, and a philosophy of web design and development that includes those methods. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Web standards)

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windows

Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. As of October 2009, Windows had approximately 91% of the market share of the client operating systems for usage on the Internet. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows 7; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2008 R2; the most recent mobile OS version is Windows Phone 7. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Microsoft Windows)

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algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. In simple words an algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, will proceed through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Algotithm)

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cookie

A cookie, also known as an HTTP cookie, web cookie, or browser cookie, is used for an origin website to send state information to a user's browser and for the browser to return the state information to the origin site. The state information can be used for authentication, identification of a user session, user's preferences, shopping cart contents, or anything else that can be accomplished through storing text data on the user's computer. Cookies are not software. They cannot be programmed, cannot carry viruses, and cannot install malware on the host computer. However, they can be used by spyware to track user's browsing activities – a major privacy concern that prompted European and US law makers to take action. Cookies can also be stolen by hackers to gain access to a victim's web account. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: HTTP cookies)

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css

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: CSS)

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digital curation

Digital curation is the selection, preservation, maintenance, collection and archiving of digital assets. Digital curation is the process of establishing and developing long term repositories of digital assets for current and future reference by researchers, scientists, and historians, and scholars generally. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Digital curation)

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digital object identifier

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a character string used to uniquely identify an electronic document or other object. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location, such as a URL, where the object can be found. The DOI for a document is permanent, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply referring to it by its URL, because if its URL changes, the publisher need only update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. However, unlike URLs, the DOI system is not open to all comers; only organizations that can meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and that are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs. The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the International DOI Foundation, which developed and controls the system. The DOI system has been developed and implemented in a range of publishing applications since 2000; by late 2009 approximately 43 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: DOI)

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electronic theses

An Institutional repository is an online locus for collecting, preserving, and disseminating - in digital form - the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution. For a university, this would include materials such as research journal articles, before (preprints) and after (postprints) undergoing peer review, and digital versions of theses and dissertations, but it might also include other digital assets generated by normal academic life, such as administrative documents, course notes, or learning objects. The four main objectives for having an institutional repository are: 1) to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving it; 2) to create global visibility for an institution's scholarly research; 3) to collect content in a single location; 4) to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature (e.g., theses or technical reports). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Institutional repository)

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fedora commons

Fedora (or Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture) is a modular architecture built on the principle that interoperability and extensibility is best achieved by the integration of data, interfaces, and mechanisms (i.e., executable programs) as clearly defined modules. Fedora is a digital asset management (DAM) architecture, upon which many types of digital library, institutional repositories, digital archives, and digital libraries systems might be built. Fedora is the underlying architecture for a digital repository, and is not a complete management, indexing, discovery, and delivery application. The Fedora software is available under the terms of the Apache License. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Fedora Commons)

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information architecture

Information architecture (IA) is the art of expressing a model or concept of information used in activities that require explicit details of complex systems. Among these activities are library systems, Content Management Systems, web development, user interactions, database development, programming, technical writing, enterprise architecture, and critical system software design. Information architecture has somewhat different meanings in these different branches of IS or IT architecture. Most definitions have common qualities: a structural design of shared environments, methods of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, and online communities, and ways of bringing the principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Information architecture)

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