Top keywords by trending factor http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/buzz/trending/trending-factor?name= en altmetrics http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16305/0/feed Altmetrics are new metrics proposed as an alternative to the widely used journal impact factor and personal citation indices like the h-index. The term altmetrics was proposed in 2010, as a generalization of article level metrics, and has its roots in the twitter #altmetrics hashtag. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altmetrics">Wikipedia article: Altmetrics</a>) research http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/15595/0/feed Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. The primary purpose for basic research (as opposed to applied research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research">Wikipedia article: Research</a>) learning analytics http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16243/0/feed Learning analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimising learning and the environments in which it occurs. A related field is educational data mining. Differentiating the fields of educational data mining (EDM) and learning analytics (LA) has been a concern of several researchers. George Siemens takes the position that educational data mining encompasses both learning analytics and academic analytics, the former of which is aimed at governments, funding agencies, and administrators instead of learners and faculty. Baepler and Murdoch, define academic analytics as an area that "...combines select institutional data, statistical analysis, and predictive modeling to create intelligence upon which learners, instructors, or administrators can change academic behavior". They go on to attempt to disambiguate educational data mining from academic analytics based on whether the process is hypothesis driven or not, though Brooks questions whether this distinction exists in the literature. Brooks instead proposes that the a better distinction between the EDM and LA communities is in the roots of where each community originated, with authorship at the EDM community being dominated by researchers coming from intelligent tutoring paradigms, and learning anaytics researchers being more focused on enterprise learning systems (e.g. learning content management systems). Regardless of the differences between the LA and EDM communities, the two areas have significant overlap both in the objectives of investigators as well as in the methods and techniques that are used in the investigation. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_analytics">Wikipedia article: Learning analytics</a>) tablet computer http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16238/0/feed A tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a one-piece mobile computer. Devices typically have a touchscreen, with finger or stylus gestures replacing the conventional computer mouse. It is often supplemented by physical buttons or input from sensors such as accelerometers. An on-screen, hideable virtual keyboard is usually used for typing. Tablets differentiate themselves by being larger than smart phones or personal digital assistants. They are usually 7 inches (18 cm) or larger, measured diagonally. Though generally self-contained, a tablet computer may be connected to a physical keyboard or other input device. A number of hybrids that have detachable keyboards have been sold since the mid-1990s. Convertible touchscreen notebook computers have an integrated keyboard that can be hidden by a swivel or slide joint. Booklet tablets have dual-touchscreens and can be used as a notebook by displaying a virtual keyboard on one of the displays. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tablet_computer">Wikipedia article: Tablet computer</a>) data http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/15/0/feed The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data (plural of "datum") are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e. unprocessed data, refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert physical quantities into symbols. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data">Wikipedia article: Data</a>) open education http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16304/0/feed Open education is a collective term to describe institutional practices and programmatic initiatives that broaden access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems. The qualifier 'open' of open education refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning. One aspect of openness in or 'opening up' education is the development and adoption of open educational resources. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_education">Wikipedia article: Open Education</a>) jquery http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16050/0/feed jQuery is a cross-browser JavaScript library designed to simplify the client-side scripting of HTML. It was released in January 2006 at BarCamp NYC by John Resig. Used by over 43% of the 10,000 most visited websites, jQuery is the most popular JavaScript library in use today. jQuery is free, open source software, dual-licensed under the MIT License and the GNU General Public License, Version 2. jQuery's syntax is designed to make it easier to navigate a document, select DOM elements, create animations, handle events, and develop Ajax applications. jQuery also provides capabilities for developers to create plugins on top of the JavaScript library. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jquery">Wikipedia article: jQuery</a>) repositories http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/166/0/feed A repository in publishing, and especially in academic publishing, is a real or virtual facility for the deposit of academic publications, such as academic journal articles. Deposit of material in such a site may be mandatory for a certain group, such as a particular university's doctoral graduates in a thesis repository, or published papers from those holding grants from a particular government agency in a subject repository, or, sometimes, in their own institutional repository. Or it may be voluntary, as usually the case for technical reports at a university. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repository_(publishing)">Wikipedia article: Repository</a>) educational data mining http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16246/0/feed Educational Data Mining (EDM) describes a research field concerned with the application of data mining to information generated from educational settings (e.g., universities and intelligent tutoring systems). At a high level, the field seeks to develop methods for exploring this data, which often has multiple levels of meaningful hierarchy, in order to discover new insights about how people learn in the context of such settings. A key area of EDM is mining computer logs of student performance. Another key area is mining enrollment data. Key uses of EDM include predicting student performance, and studying learning in order to recommend improvements to current educational practice. EDM can be considered one of the learning sciences, as well as an area of data mining. A related field is learning analytics. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educational_data_mining">Wikipedia article: Educational Data Mining</a>) mobile http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16/0/feed A mobile device (also known as a handheld device, handheld computer or simply handheld) is a pocket-sized computing device, typically having a display screen with touch input and/or a miniature keyboard. In the case of the personal digital assistant (PDA) the input and output are often combined into a touch-screen interface. Smartphones and PDAs are popular amongst those who require the assistance and convenience of certain aspects of a conventional computer, in environments where carrying one would not be practical. Enterprise digital assistants can further extend the available functionality for the business user by offering integrated data capture devices like barcode, RFID and smart card readers. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_device">Wikipedia article: Mobile devices</a>) bs8878 http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16068/0/feed Web accessibility refers to the inclusive practice of making websites usable by people of all abilities and disabilities. When sites are correctly designed, developed and edited, all users can have equal access to information and functionality. For example, when a site is coded with semantically meaningful HTML, with textual equivalents provided for images and with links named meaningfully, this helps blind users using text-to-speech software and/or text-to-Braille hardware. When text and images are large and/or enlargable, it is easier for users with poor sight to read and understand the content. When links are underlined (or otherwise differentiated) as well as coloured, this ensures that color blind users will be able to notice them. When clickable links and areas are large, this helps users who cannot control a mouse with precision. When pages are coded so that users can navigate by means of the keyboard alone, or a single switch access device alone, this helps users who cannot use a mouse or even a standard keyboard. When videos are closed captioned or a sign language version is available, deaf and hard of hearing users can understand the video. When flashing effects are avoided or made optional, users prone to seizures caused by these effects are not put at risk. And when content is written in plain language and illustrated with instructional diagrams and animations, users with dyslexia and learning difficulties are better able to understand the content. When sites are correctly built and maintained, all of these users can be accommodated while not impacting on the usability of the site for non-disabled users. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_accessibility">Wikipedia article: BS 8878</a>) augmented reality http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/6364/0/feed Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or an indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input, such as sound or graphics. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one's current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality">Wikipedia article: Augmented reality</a>) mooc http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16244/0/feed A massive open online course (MOOC) is an online course aimed at large-scale interactive participation and open access via the web. In addition to traditional course materials such as videos, readings, and problem sets, MOOCs provide interactive user forums that help build a community for the students, professors, and teaching assistants (TAs). MOOCs are a recent development in distance education. Features associated with early MOOCs, such as open licensing of content, open structure and learning goals, and connectivism may not be present in all MOOC projects, in particular with the 'openness' of many MOOCs being called into question. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massive_open_online_course">Wikipedia article: MOOC</a>) open data http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/78/0/feed Open data is a philosophy and practice requiring that certain data be freely available to everyone, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. It has a similar ethos to a number of other "Open" movements and communities such as open source and open access. However these are not logically linked and many combinations of practice are found. The practice and ideology itself is well established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science) but the term "open data" itself is recent. Much of the emphasis in this entry is on data from scientific research and from the data-driven web. In some cases open data may be considered as more properly Open Metadata and there is not yet a consistent formalisation. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_science_data">Wikipedia article: Open data</a>) open access http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/169/0/feed Open access (OA) refers to unrestricted online access to articles published in scholarly journals, and increasingly also book chapters or monographs. Open Access comes in two forms, Gratis versus Libre: Gratis OA is no-cost online access, while Libre OA offers some additional usage rights. Open content is similar to OA, but usually includes the right to modify the work, whereas in scholarly publishing it is usual to keep an article's content intact and to associate it with a fixed author. Creative Commons licenses can be used to specify usage rights. The Open Access idea can be extended to the learning objects and resources provided in e-learning. OA can be provided in two ways: 1) "Green OA" is provided by authors publishing in any journal and then self-archiving their postprints in their institutional repository or on some other OA website. Green OA journal publishers endorse immediate OA self-archiving by their authors. 2) "Gold OA" is provided by authors publishing in an open access journal that provides immediate OA to all of its articles on the publisher's website. (Hybrid open access journals provide Gold OA only for those individual articles for which their authors (or their author's institution or funder) pay an OA publishing fee.) (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access_(publishing)">Wikipedia article: Open access publishing</a>) jpeg 2000 http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/9212/0/feed JPEG 2000 is an image compression standard and coding system. It was created by the Joint Photographic Experts Group committee in 2000 with the intention of superseding their original discrete cosine transform-based JPEG standard (created in 1992) with a newly designed, wavelet-based method. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jpeg_2000">Wikipedia article: JPEG 2000</a>) big data http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/15895/0/feed In information technology, big data consists of datasets that grow so large that they become awkward to work with using on-hand database management tools. Difficulties include capture, storage, search, sharing, analytics, and visualizing. This trend continues because of the benefits of working with larger and larger datasets allowing analysts to "spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime." Though a moving target, current limits are on the order of terabytes, exabytes and zettabytes of data. Scientists regularly encounter this problem in meteorology, genomics, connectomics, complex physics simulations, biological and environmental research, Internet search, finance and business informatics. Data sets also grow in size because they are increasingly being gathered by ubiquitous information-sensing mobile devices, aerial sensory technologies (remote sensing), software logs, cameras, microphones, Radio-frequency identification readers, wireless sensor networks and so on." Every day, 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created and 90% of the data in the world today was created within the past two years. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_data">Wikipedia article: Big data</a>) api http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/41/0/feed An application programming interface (API) is a particular set of rules and specifications that a software program can follow to access and make use of the services and resources provided by another particular software program that implements that API. It serves as an interface between different software programs and facilitates their interaction, similar to the way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programming_interface">Wikipedia article: API</a>) web app http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/158/0/feed A web application is an application that is accessed by users over a network such as the Internet or an intranet. The term may also mean a computer software application that is coded in a browser-supported programming language (such as JavaScript, combined with a browser-rendered markup language like HTML) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable. Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client. The ability to update and maintain web applications without distributing and installing software on potentially thousands of client computers is a key reason for their popularity, as is the inherent support for cross-platform compatibility. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, online auctions, wikis and many other functions. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_application">Wikipedia article: Web application</a>) linked data http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/9904/0/feed Linked Data describes a method of publishing structured data, so that it can be interlinked and become more useful. It builds upon standard Web technologies, such as HTTP and URIs - but rather than using them to serve web pages for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers. This enables data from different sources to be connected and queried. Tim Berners-Lee, director of the World Wide Web Consortium, coined the term in a design note discussing issues around the Semantic Web project. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_Data">Wikipedia article: Linked Data</a>) cloud computing http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/1432/0/feed Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. In the traditional model of computing, both data and software are fully contained on the user's computer; in cloud computing, the user's computer may contain almost no software or data (perhaps a minimal operating system and web browser only), serving as little more than a display terminal for processes occurring on a network of computers far away. A common shorthand for a provider's cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud". (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing">Wikipedia article: Cloud computing</a>) ipad http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/10699/0/feed The iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc. primarily as a platform for audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, and web content. Its size and weight falls between those of contemporary smartphones and laptop computers. The iPad runs the same operating system as the iPod Touch and iPhone - and can run its own applications as well as iPhone applications. Without modification, and with the exception of websites, it will only run programs approved by Apple and distributed via its online store. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipad">Wikipedia article: IPad</a>) native apps http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16250/0/feed A native application (native app) is an application program that has been developed for use on a particular platform or device. Because native apps are written for a specific platform, they can interact with and take advantage of operating system features and other software that is typically installed on that platform. Because a native app is built for a particular device and its operating system, it has the ability to use device-specific hardware and software, meaning that native apps can take advantage of the latest technology available on mobile devices such as a global positioning system (GPS) and camera. This can be construed as an advantage for native apps over Web apps or mobile cloud apps. (Excerpt from <a href="http://searchsoftwarequality.techtarget.com/definition/native-application-native-app">this source</a>) blog http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/156/0/feed A blog (a blend of the term web log) is a type of website or part of a website. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Blog can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog">Wikipedia article: Blog</a>) ebook http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/3210/0/feed An electronic book (also e-book, ebook, digital book) is a text and image-based publication in digital form produced on, published by, and readable on computers or other digital devices. Sometimes the equivalent of a conventional printed book, e-books can also be born digital. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines the e-book as "an electronic version of a printed book," but e-books can and do exist without any printed equivalent. E-books are usually read on dedicated hardware devices known as e-Readers or e-book devices. Personal computers and some cell phones can also be used to read e-books. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-book">Wikipedia article: E-book</a>) freemium http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16247/0/feed Freemium is a business model by which a proprietary product or service (typically a digital offering such as software, media, games or web services) is provided free of charge, but money (premium) is charged for advanced features, functionality, or virtual goods. The word "freemium" is a portmanteau neologism combining the two aspects of the business model: "free" and "premium". (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freemium">Wikipedia article: Freemium</a>) digitisation http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/125/0/feed Digitising or digitisation is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called digital representation or, more specifically, a digital image, for the object, and digital form, for the signal. Strictly speaking, digitizing means simply capturing an analog signal in digital form. For a document the term means to trace the document image or capture the "corners" where the lines end or change direction. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digitisation">Wikipedia article: Digitisation</a>) accessibility http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/127/0/feed Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and possible benefit of some system or entity. Accessibility is often used to focus on people with disabilities or special needs and their right of access to entities, often through use of assistive technology. Accessibility is often abbreviated to the numeronym a11y, where the number 11 refers to the number of letters omitted. This parallels the abbreviations of internationalization and localization as i18n and l10n respectively. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessibility">Wikipedia article: Accessibility</a>) data set http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/1535/0/feed A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data, usually presented in tabular form. Each column represents a particular variable. Each row corresponds to a given member of the data set in question. Its values for each of the variables, such as height and weight of an object or values of random numbers. Each value is known as a datum. The data set may comprise data for one or more members, corresponding to the number of rows. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_set">Wikipedia article: Data set</a>) mets http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/4979/0/feed The Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) is a metadata standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language of the World Wide Web Consortium. The standard is maintained in the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress, and is being developed as an initiative of the Digital Library Federation. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/METS">Wikipedia article: Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS)</a>) local storage http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/8621/0/feed What I will refer to as 'HTML5 Storage' is a specification named Web Storage, which was at one time part of the HTML5 specification proper, but was split out into its own specification for uninteresting political reasons. Certain browser vendors also refer to it as 'Local Storage' or 'DOM Storage.' Simply put, it's a way for web pages to store named key/value pairs locally, within the client web browser. Like cookies, this data persists even after you navigate away from the web site, close your browser tab, exit your browser, or what have you. Unlike cookies, this data is never transmitted to the remote web server (unless you go out of your way to send it manually). Unlike all previous attempts at providing persistent local storage, it is implemented natively in web browsers, so it is available even when third-party browser plugins are not. (Excerpt from <a href="/wiki/Web_Storage">this source</a>) json http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/7673/0/feed JSON is a lightweight text-based open standard designed for human-readable data interchange. It is derived from the JavaScript programming language for representing simple data structures and associative arrays, called objects. Despite its relationship to JavaScript, it is language-independent, with parsers available for most programming languages. The JSON format was originally specified by Douglas Crockford, and is described in RFC 4627. The official Internet media type for JSON is application/json. The JSON filename extension is .json. The JSON format is often used for serializing and transmitting structured data over a network connection. It is primarily used to transmit data between a server and web application, serving as an alternative to XML. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON">Wikipedia article: JSON</a>) diigo http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/13684/0/feed Diigo is a social bookmarking website which allows signed-up users to bookmark and tag web-pages. Additionally, it allows users to highlight any part of a webpage and attach sticky notes to specific highlights or to a whole page. These annotations can be kept private, shared with a group within Diigo or a special link forwarded to someone else. The name "Diigo" is an acronym from "Digest of Internet Information, Groups and Other stuff". (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diigo">Wikipedia article: Diigo</a>) ssh http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/1986/0/feed Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged using a secure channel between two networked devices. The two major versions of the protocol are referred to as SSH1 or SSH-1 and SSH2 or SSH-2. Used primarily on Linux and Unix based systems to access shell accounts, SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and other insecure remote shells, which send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to packet analysis. The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secure_Shell">Wikipedia article: SSH</a>) metadata http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/95/0/feed Metadata can be defined literally as "data about data," but the term is normally understood to mean structured data about digital (and non-digital) resources that can be used to help support a wide range of operations. These might include, for example, resource description and discovery, the management of information resources (including rights management) and their long-term preservation. In the context of digital resources, there exists a wide variety of metadata formats. Viewed on a continuum of increasing complexity, these range from the basic records used by robot-based Internet search services, through relatively simple formats like the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) and the more detailed Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) header and MARC formats, to highly specific formats like the FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata, the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) and the Data Documentation Initiative (DDI) Codebook. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/">this source</a>) neoliberalism http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/16307/0/feed Neoliberalism is a political philosophy whose advocates support economic liberalizations, free trade and open markets, privatization, deregulation, and enhancing the role of the private sector in modern society. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neoliberalism">Wikipedia article: Neoliberalism</a>) doi http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/105/0/feed A digital object identifier (DOI) is a character string used to uniquely identify an electronic document or other object. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location, such as a URL, where the object can be found. The DOI for a document is permanent, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply referring to it by its URL, because if its URL changes, the publisher need only update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. However, unlike URLs, the DOI system is not open to all comers; only organizations that can meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and that are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs. The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the International DOI Foundation, which developed and controls the system. The DOI system has been developed and implemented in a range of publishing applications since 2000; by late 2009 approximately 43 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier">Wikipedia article: DOI</a>) html5 http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/11396/0/feed HTML5 is a language for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web, a core technology of the Internet. It is the latest revision of the HTML standard (originally created in 1990) and currently remains under development. Its core aims have been to improve the language with support for the latest multimedia while keeping it easily readable by humans and consistently understood by computers and devices (web browsers, parsers etc.). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Html5">Wikipedia article: HTML5</a>) eprints http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/167/0/feed EPrints is a free and open source software package for building open access repositories that are compliant with the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting. It shares many of the features commonly seen in Document Management systems, but is primarily used for institutional repositories and scientific journals. EPrints has been developed at the University of Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science and released under a GPL license. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eprints">Wikipedia article: Eprints</a>) data management http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/170/0/feed Data management comprises all the disciplines related to managing data as a valuable resource. The official definition provided by DAMA International, the professional organization for those in the data management profession, is: "Data Resource Management is the development and execution of architectures, policies, practices and procedures that properly manage the full data lifecycle needs of an enterprise." This definition is fairly broad and encompasses a number of professions which may not have direct technical contact with lower-level aspects of data management, such as relational database management. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_management">Wikipedia article: Data management</a>)