Skip to Content

Overview of keyword tags

Syndicate content
Key image: copyright, used under license from

This page provides an overview of 596 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Total articles Total usage Trending factorsort icon Charts

authentication service

An authentication service is a structured network service that determines that the digital ID being presented to a network service is being used by the real-world individual who has the rights to use it. This is often achieved through the use of a username/password combination or a digital certificate, depending on the degree of assurance required. (Excerpt from JISC Information Environment Glossary)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.4%.
7 7

authorisation service

An authorisation service is a structured network service that indicates whether a particular digital ID has the necessary access-rights to access a particular resource. (Excerpt from JISC Information Environment Glossary)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
4 4

authority data

Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD), formerly known as Functional Requirements for Authority Records (FRAR) is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) for relating the data that are recorded in library authority records to the needs of the users of those records and facilitate and sharing of that data. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: FRAD)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 8


In computing, an avatar is the graphical representation of the user or the user's alter ego or character. It may take either a three-dimensional form, as in games or virtual worlds, or a two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and other online communities. It can also refer to a text construct found on early systems such as MUDs. It is an object representing the user. The term "avatar" can also refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user. For other meanings of this term, see . (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Avatar)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.4%.
7 14


Audio Video Interleave (also Audio Video Interleaved), known by its acronym AVI, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows technology. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. Like the DVD video format, AVI files support multiple streaming audio and video, although these features are seldom used. Most AVI files also use the file format extensions developed by the Matrox OpenDML group in February 1996. These files are supported by Microsoft, and are unofficially called "AVI 2.0". (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: AVI)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
9 12

bath profile

The Bath Profile is an international Z39.50 Specification for Library Applications and Resource Discovery The syntax of Z39.50 is abstracted from the underlying database structure; for example, if the client specifies an author search (Use attribute 1003), it is up to the server to determine how to map that search to the indexes it has at hand. This allows Z39.50 queries to be formulated without having to know anything about the target database; but it also means that results for the same query can vary widely among different servers. One server may have an author index; another may use its index of personal names, whether they are authors or not; another may have no suitable index and fall back on its keyword index; and another may have no suitable index and return an error. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Bath Profile)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 1.4%.
24 74

bibliographic control

In library and information science, bibliographic control (also known as information organization or bibliographic organization) is the process by which information resources are described so that users are able to find and select that information resource. An information resource could be a book, a movie, or an image, among other things. By providing a name, title, and subject access to the description, a bibliographic record is created. This bibliographic record, which is essentially metadata, is indexed by an information retrieval tool (such as a database or a search engine) so that a user can find out whether or not the information resource is relevant to them. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Bibliographic control)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.9%.
16 20

bibliographic database

A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc. In contrast to library catalogue entries, a large proportion of the bibliographic records in bibliographic databases describe analytics (articles, conference papers, etc.) rather than complete monographs, and they generally contain very rich subject descriptions in the form of keywords, subject classification terms, or abstracts. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Bibliographic database)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 1.7%.
30 40

bibliographic record

A bibliographic record is an entry being a uniform representation and description of a specific content item in a bibliographic database (or a library catalog), containing data elements required for its identification and retrieval, as well as additional supporting information, presented in a formalized bibliographic format. The additional information may support particular database functions such as search, or browse (e.g. keywords), or may serve fuller presentation of the content item in the database (e.g. article's abstract). Bibliographic records are usually retrievable from bibliographic databases by author, title, index term, or keyword. Bibliographic records can represent a wide variety of published contents, including traditional paper, digitized or born-digital publications. The process of creation, exchange, and preservation of bibliographic records are parts of a larger process, called bibliographic control. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Bibliographic record)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.9%.
15 23


Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze academic literature. Citation analysis and content analysis are commonly used bibliometric methods. While bibliometric methods are most often used in the field of library and information science, bibliometrics have wide applications in other areas. Many research fields use bibliometric methods to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Bibliometrics)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
9 21

big data

In information technology, big data consists of datasets that grow so large that they become awkward to work with using on-hand database management tools. Difficulties include capture, storage, search, sharing, analytics, and visualizing. This trend continues because of the benefits of working with larger and larger datasets allowing analysts to "spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime." Though a moving target, current limits are on the order of terabytes, exabytes and zettabytes of data. Scientists regularly encounter this problem in meteorology, genomics, connectomics, complex physics simulations, biological and environmental research, Internet search, finance and business informatics. Data sets also grow in size because they are increasingly being gathered by ubiquitous information-sensing mobile devices, aerial sensory technologies (remote sensing), software logs, cameras, microphones, Radio-frequency identification readers, wireless sensor networks and so on." Every day, 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created and 90% of the data in the world today was created within the past two years. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Big data)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.8%.
14 97


Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In computer science, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Biometrics)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
3 3


BSON is a computer data interchange format. It is a binary form for representing simple data structures and associative arrays (called objects or documents). The name "BSON" is based on the term JSON and stands for "Binary JSON". Compared to JSON, BSON is designed to be efficient both in storage space and scan-speed. Large elements in a BSON document are prefixed with a length field to facilitate scanning. In some cases, BSON will use more space than JSON due to the length prefixes and explicit array indices. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BSON)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 1

blackboard learning system

The Blackboard Learning System is a virtual learning environment and course management system developed by Blackboard Inc. Features include course management, a customizable open architecture, and a scalable design that allows for integration with student information systems and authentication protocols. It may be installed on local servers or hosted by Blackboard ASP Solutions. Its main purposes are to add online elements to courses traditionally delivered face-to-face and to develop completely online courses with few or no face-to-face meetings. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Blackboard Learning System)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 2


The BMP File Format, also known as Bitmap Image File or Device Independent Bitmap (DIB) file format or simply a Bitmap, is a Raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BMP)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
3 8

born digital

The term born-digital refers to materials that originate in a digital form. This is in contrast to digital reformatting, through which analog materials become digital. It is most often used in relation to digital libraries and the issues that go along with said organizations, such as digital preservation and intellectual property. However, as technologies have advanced and spread, the concept of being born-digital has also been discussed in relation to personal consumer-based sectors, with the rise of e-books and evolving digital music. Other terms that might be encountered as synonymous include "natively digital," "digital-first," and "digital-exclusive. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Born digital)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 1.7%.
30 41


Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), short for Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is an OASIS standard executable language for specifying actions within business processes with web services. Processes in Business Process Execution Language export and import information by using web service interfaces exclusively. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BPEL)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 6


Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a business process model. BPMN was developed by Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI), and is currently maintained by the Object Management Group since the two organizations merged in 2005. As of March 2011, the current version of BPMN is 2.0. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Business Process Modeling Notation)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 2


Web accessibility refers to the inclusive practice of making websites usable by people of all abilities and disabilities. When sites are correctly designed, developed and edited, all users can have equal access to information and functionality. For example, when a site is coded with semantically meaningful HTML, with textual equivalents provided for images and with links named meaningfully, this helps blind users using text-to-speech software and/or text-to-Braille hardware. When text and images are large and/or enlargable, it is easier for users with poor sight to read and understand the content. When links are underlined (or otherwise differentiated) as well as coloured, this ensures that color blind users will be able to notice them. When clickable links and areas are large, this helps users who cannot control a mouse with precision. When pages are coded so that users can navigate by means of the keyboard alone, or a single switch access device alone, this helps users who cannot use a mouse or even a standard keyboard. When videos are closed captioned or a sign language version is available, deaf and hard of hearing users can understand the video. When flashing effects are avoided or made optional, users prone to seizures caused by these effects are not put at risk. And when content is written in plain language and illustrated with instructional diagrams and animations, users with dyslexia and learning difficulties are better able to understand the content. When sites are correctly built and maintained, all of these users can be accommodated while not impacting on the usability of the site for non-disabled users. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BS 8878)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
5 38


Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is a UNIX operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995. Historically, BSD has been considered a branch of UNIX - "BSD UNIX", because it shared the initial codebase and design with the original AT&T UNIX operating system. In the 1980s, BSD was widely adopted by vendors of workstation-class systems in the form of proprietary UNIX variants such as DEC ULTRIX and Sun Microsystems SunOS. This can be attributed to the ease with which it could be licensed, and the familiarity it found among the founders of many technology companies of this era. Though these proprietary BSD derivatives were largely superseded by the UNIX System V Release 4 and OSF/1 systems in the 1990s (both of which incorporated BSD code), later BSD releases provided a basis for several open source development projects that continue to this day. Today, the term "BSD" is often non-specifically used to refer to any of these BSD descendants, e.g., FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD or DragonFly, which together form a branch of the family of Unix-like operating systems. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BSD)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 7
Syndicate content

by Dr. Radut