Overview of keyword tags

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This page provides an overview of 617 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Charts

semiotic

Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or (in the Saussurean tradition) semiology, is the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication. Semiotics is closely related to the field of linguistics, which, for its part, studies the structure and meaning of language more specifically. Semiotics is often divided into three branches: 1) Semantics: Relation between signs and the things to which they refer; their denotata, or meaning. 2) Syntactics: Relations among signs in formal structures. 3) Pragmatics: Relation between signs and the effects they have on the people who use them. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiotics">Wikipedia article: Semiotics</a>)

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service oriented architecture

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a flexible set of design principles used during the phases of systems development and integration in computing. A system based on a SOA will package functionality as a suite of interoperable services that can be used within multiple, separate systems from several business domains. SOA also generally provides a way for consumers of services, such as web-based applications, to be aware of available SOA-based services. For example, several disparate departments within a company may develop and deploy SOA services in different implementation languages; their respective clients will benefit from a well understood, well defined interface to access them. XML is commonly used for interfacing with SOA services, though this is not required. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service-oriented_architecture">Wikipedia article: Service oriented architecture</a>)

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service registry

A service registry is a network service that stores and makes available descriptions of (i.e. metadata about) services and the content of collections made available through those services. A service registry is used by portals to determine what collections are available to end-users, and by portals, brokers and aggregators to determine how to interact with available network services. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/distributed-systems/jisc-ie/arch/glossary/">JISC Information Environment Glossary</a>)

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service usage model

Service Usage Models (SUMs) are a core component of the e-Framework. SUMs provide a description of the needs, requirements, workflows, management policies and processes within a domain and the mapping of these to a design of a structured collection of Service Genres and Service Expressions, resources, associated standards, specifications, data formats, protocols, bindings, etc., that can be used to implement software applications within the domain. In other words, SUMs model how services meet business needs. (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.e-framework.org/Default.aspx?tabid=607">this source</a>)

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sesame

Sesame is an open-source framework for querying and analyzing RDF data. It was created, and is still being maintained, by the Dutch software company Aduna. It was originally developed as part of the "On-To-Knowledge", a semantic web project that ran from 1999 to 2002. It contains a triplestore. Sesame supports two query languages: SeRQL and Sparql. Another component of Sesame is Alibaba, an API that allows for mapping Java-classes on ontologies, and for generating Java source files from ontologies. This makes it possible to use specific ontologies like RSS, FOAF and Dublin Core from Java directly. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesame_(framework)">Wikipedia article: Sesame</a>)

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sfx

SFX was the first OpenURL link resolver or link server. It remains the most widely-used OpenURL resolver, being used by over 1,500 libraries. Librarians Herbert van de Sompel, Patrick Hochstenbach and their colleagues at Ghent University in Belgium developed the OpenURL framework from 1998 to 2000. At that time they called it by the working title Special Effects (SFX). As part of the OpenURL development, they implemented the linking server software called SFX server. In early 2000, Ex Libris, Ltd acquired the SFX server software from Ghent University. Ex Libris re-engineered the software and marketed it to libraries as an autonomous component of the OpenURL framework. Ex Libris continues to develop the software and add enhancements recommended by its customers. SFX is the most widely-known OpenURL link server within the library and scholarly publishing community, and occasionally the product name has been used as a generic term for OpenURL link servers. For other meanings of this term, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SFX . (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SFX_(software)">Wikipedia article: SFX</a>)

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sgml

The Standard Generalized Markup Language (ISO 8879:1986 SGML) is an ISO-standard technology for defining generalized markup languages for documents. ISO 8879 Annex A.1 defines generalized markup: Generalized markup is based on two novel postulates: 1) Markup should describe a document's structure and other attributes, rather than specify the processing to be performed on it, as descriptive markup needs to be done only once, and will suffice for future processing. 2) Markup should be rigorous so that the techniques available for processing rigorously-defined objects like programs and databases can be used for processing documents as well. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Generalized_Markup_Language">Wikip... article: SGML</a>)

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shared resource

In computing, a shared resource or network share is a device or piece of information on a computer that can be remotely accessed from another computer, typically via a local area network or an enterprise Intranet, transparently as if it were a resource in the local machine. Examples are shared file access (also known as disk sharing and folder sharing), shared printer access (printer sharing), shared scanner access, etc. The shared resource is called a shared disk (also known as mounted disk), shared drive volume, shared folder, shared file, shared document, shared printer or shared scanner. The term file sharing traditionally means shared file access, especially in the context of operating systems and LAN and Intranet services, for example in Microsoft Windows documentation. Though, as BitTorrent and similar applications became available in the early 2000's, the term file sharing increasingly has become associated with peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_resource">Wikipedia article: Resource sharing</a>)

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sharepoint

Microsoft SharePoint is a web application platform developed by Microsoft. First launched in 2001, SharePoint is typically associated with web content management and document management systems, but it is actually a much broader platform of web technologies, capable of being configured to suit a wide range of solution areas. SharePoint is designed as a central application platform for common enterprise web requirements. SharePoint's multi-purpose design allows for management, scaling, and provisioning of a broad variety of business applications. It provides a layer of management and abstraction from the web server, with the ultimate goal of enabling business users to leverage web features without having to understand technical aspects of web development. SharePoint also contains pre-defined 'applications' for commonly requested functionality, such as intranet portals, extranets, websites, document & file management, collaboration spaces, social tools, enterprise search and business intelligence. Other common use-cases for SharePoint include process integration, system integration, workflow automation, and providing core infrastructure for third-party solutions (such as ERP, CRM, BI, and social enterprise packages). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_SharePoint">Wikipedia article: SharePoint</a>)

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shibboleth

Shibboleth is an Internet2 Middleware Initiative project that has created an architecture and open-source implementation for federated identity-based authentication and authorization infrastructure based on Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). Federated identity allows for information about users in one security domain to be provided to other organizations in a federation. This allows for cross-domain single sign-on and removes the need for content providers to maintain user names and passwords. Identity providers (IdPs) supply user information, while service providers (SPs) consume this information and get access to secure content. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shibboleth_(Internet2)">Wikipedia article: Shibboleth</a>)

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simple dublin core

The Dublin Core set of metadata elements provides a small and fundamental group of text elements through which most resources can be described and catalogued. Using only 15 base text fields, a Dublin Core metadata record can describe physical resources such as books, digital materials such as video, sound, image, or text files, and composite media like web pages. Metadata records based on Dublin Core are intended to be used for cross-domain information resource description and have become standard in the fields of library science and computer science. Implementations of Dublin Core typically make use of XML and are Resource Description Framework based. Dublin Core is defined by ISO through ISO Standard 15836, and NISO Standard Z39.85-2007. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin_Core#Simple_Dublin_Core">Wikipedia article: Simple Dublin Core</a>)

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skos

Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a family of formal languages designed for representation of thesauri, classification schemes, taxonomies, subject-heading systems, or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary. SKOS is built upon RDF and RDFS, and its main objective is to enable easy publication of controlled structured vocabularies for the Semantic Web. SKOS is currently developed within the W3C framework. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SKOS">Wikipedia article: SKOS</a>)

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smartphone

A smartphone is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone. Smartphones and feature phones may be thought of as handheld computers integrated with a mobile telephone, but while most feature phones are able to run applications based on platforms such as Java ME, a smartphone allows the user to run and preemptively multitask applications that are native to the underlying hardware. Smartphones run complete operating system software providing a platform for application developers. Thus, they combine the functions of a camera phone and a personal digital assistant (PDA). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smartphone">Wikipedia article: Smartphone</a>)

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smil

SMIL, the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language, is a W3C recommended XML markup language for describing multimedia presentations. It defines markup for timing, layout, animations, visual transitions, and media embedding, among other things. SMIL allows the presentation of media items such as text, images, video, and audio, as well as links to other SMIL presentations, and files from multiple web servers. SMIL markup is written in XML, and has similarities to HTML. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synchronized_Multimedia_Integration_Languag... article: SMIL</a>)

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sms

Short Message Service (SMS) is the text communication service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed line or mobile phone devices. SMS text messaging is the most widely used data application in the world, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phone subscribers. The term SMS is used as a synonym for all types of short text messaging as well as the user activity itself in many parts of the world. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS">Wikipedia article: SMS</a>)

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soa

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a flexible set of design principles used during the phases of systems development and integration in computing. A system based on a SOA will package functionality as a suite of interoperable services that can be used within multiple, separate systems from several business domains. SOA also generally provides a way for consumers of services, such as web-based applications, to be aware of available SOA-based services. For example, several disparate departments within a company may develop and deploy SOA services in different implementation languages; their respective clients will benefit from a well understood, well defined interface to access them. XML is commonly used for interfacing with SOA services, though this is not required. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service-oriented_architecture">Wikipedia article: Service oriented architecture</a>)

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soap

SOAP, originally defined as Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks. It relies on Extensible Markup Language (XML) for its message format, and usually relies on other Application Layer protocols, most notably Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), for message negotiation and transmission. SOAP can form the foundation layer of a web services protocol stack, providing a basic messaging framework upon which web services can be built. This XML based protocol consists of three parts: an envelope, which defines what is in the message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing procedure calls and responses. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOAP">Wikipedia article: SOAP</a>)

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social networks

A social network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called "nodes", which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of network theory consisting of nodes and ties (also called edges, links, or connections). Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are the relationships between the actors. The resulting graph-based structures are often very complex. There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes. Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network">Wikipedia article: Social network</a>)

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social software

Social software applications include communication tools and interactive tools. Communication tools typically handle the capturing, storing and presentation of communication, usually written but increasingly including audio and video as well. Interactive tools handle mediated interactions between a pair or group of users. They focus on establishing and maintaining a connection among users, facilitating the mechanics of conversation and talk. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_software">Wikipedia article: Social software</a>)

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social web

The Social Web is a specified term for the World Wide Web as a kind of Social Media. The term is currently used to describe how people socialize or interact with each other throughout the Web. The Social Web mostly refers to social networking, myspace for example, and content-sharing sites (which also offer a social networking functionality) within Web 2.0. These social websites are mostly formed around the connections of people of the same interest, but there are several theories that specifies exactly how this formation works. There are for example said to be "people focus" websites such as PalBlast, Bebo, Facebook, and Myspace, that focus of social interaction, often by making the user create an online identity (and a profile). There is also socializing on the web that is typified by "hobby focus". For example, if one is interested in photography and wants to share this with like-minded people, then there are photography websites such as Flickr, Kodak Gallery and Photobucket. Often when speaking about the Social Web, collective intelligence is mentioned. Collective intelligence refers to the phenomena of internet users getting together, sharing content, in order to create something bigger than one single person could do. Sometimes, this is also called Wisdom of Crowds. Wikipedia is a perfect example of this. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_web">Wikipedia article: Social web</a>)

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