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This page provides an overview of 595 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Total articles Total usage Trending factorsort icon Charts


H.263 is a video compression standard originally designed as a low-bitrate compressed format for videoconferencing. It was developed by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) in a project ending in 1995/1996 as one member of the H.26x family of video coding standards in the domain of the ITU-T. H.263 has since found many applications on the internet: much Flash Video content (as used on sites such as YouTube, Google Video, MySpace, etc.) used to be encoded in Sorenson Spark format (an incomplete implementation of H.263), though many sites now use VP6 or H.264 encoding. The original version of the RealVideo codec was based on H.263 up until the release of RealVideo 8. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: H.263)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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H.264 / MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (Advanced Video Coding) is a standard for video compression, and is currently one of the most commonly used formats for the recording, compression, and distribution of high definition video. The final drafting work on the first version of the standard was completed in May 2003. H.264 is perhaps best known as being one of the codec standards for Blu-ray Discs; all Blu-ray players must be able to decode H.264. It is also widely used by streaming internet sources, such as videos from Vimeo, YouTube, and the iTunes Store, web software such as the Adobe Flash Player and Microsoft Silverlight, broadcast services for DVB and SBTVD, direct-broadcast satellite television services, cable television services, and real-time videoconferencing. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: H.264)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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handle system

The Handle System is a technology specification for assigning, managing, and resolving persistent identifiers for digital objects and other resources on the Internet. The protocols specified enable a distributed computer system to store identifiers (names, or handles), of digital resources and resolve those handles into the information necessary to locate, access, and otherwise make use of the resources. That information can be changed as needed to reflect the current state and/or location of the identified resource without changing the handle. The Handle System was developed by Bob Kahn, co-inventor of the TCP/IP protocols that underlie the operation of the Internet, with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), which continues to develop and manage it. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Handle system)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.9%.
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hCard is a microformat for publishing the contact details (which might be no more than the name) of people, companies, organizations, and places, in (X)HTML, Atom, RSS, or arbitrary XML. The hCard microformat does this using a 1:1 representation of vCard (RFC 2426) properties and values, identified using HTML classes and rel attributes. It allows parsing tools (for example other websites, or Firefox's Operator extension) to extract the details, and display them, using some other websites or mapping tools, index or search them, or to load them into an address-book program. In May 2009, Google announced that they would be parsing the hCard, hReview and hProduct microformats, and using them to populate search-result pages. In September 2010 Google announced their intention to surface hCard, hReview information in their local search results. In February 2011, Facebook began using hCard to mark up event venues. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: hCard)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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Heritrix is the Internet Archive's web crawler, which was specially designed for web archiving. It is open-source and written in Java. The main interface is accessible using a web browser, and there is a command-line tool that can optionally be used to initiate crawls. Heritrix was developed jointly by Internet Archive and the Nordic national libraries on specifications written in early 2003. The first official release was in January 2004, and it has been continually improved by employees of the Internet Archive and other interested parties. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Heritrix)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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NTT DoCoMo's i-mode is a mobile internet (as opposed to wireless internet) service popular in Japan. Unlike Wireless Application Protocol or WAP, i-mode encompasses a wider variety of internet standards, including web access, e-mail and the packet-switched network that delivers the data. i-mode users have access to various services such as e-mail, sports results, weather forecast, games, financial services and ticket booking. Content is provided by specialized services, typically from the mobile carrier, which allows them to have tighter control over billing. Like WAP, i-mode delivers only those services that are specifically converted for the service, or are converted through gateways. This has placed both systems at a disadvantage against handsets that use "real" browser software, and generally use a flat pricing structure for data. Even i-mode's creator, Takeshi Natsuno, has stated "I believe the iPhone (a phone that uses the traditional TCP/IP model) is closer to the mobile phone of the future, compared with the latest Japanese mobile phones." (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: i-mode)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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In computing, internationalization and localization (also spelled internationalisation and localisation, see spelling differences) are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target market. Internationalization is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes. Localization is the process of adapting internationalized software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text. The terms are frequently abbreviated to the numeronyms i18n (where 18 stands for the number of letters between the first i and last n in internationalization, a usage coined at DEC in the 1970s or 80s) and L10n respectively, due to the length of the words. The capital L in L10n helps to distinguish it from the lowercase i in i18n. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Internationalization and localization)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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iCalendar is a computer file format which allows Internet users to send meeting requests and tasks to other Internet users, via email, or sharing files with an extension of .ics. Recipients of the iCalendar data file (with supporting software, such as an email client or calendar application) can respond to the sender easily or counter propose another meeting date/time. iCalendar is used and supported by a large number of products, including Google Calendar, Apple iCal, GoDaddy Online Group Calendar, IBM Lotus Notes, Yahoo! Calendar and partially also by Microsoft Outlook. iCalendar is designed to be independent of the transport protocol. For example, certain events can be sent by traditional email or whole calendar files can be shared and edited by using a WebDav server, or SyncML. Simple web servers (using just the HTTP protocol) are often used to distribute iCalendar data about an event and to publish busy times of an individual. Publishers can embed iCalendar data in web pages using hCalendar, a 1:1 microformat representation of iCalendar in semantic (X)HTML. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: iCalendar)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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Iconclass is a specialized library classification designed for art and iconography. It was originally conceived by Henri van de Waal, and was further developed by a group of scholars after his death. The Iconclass system is probably the largest classification system for cultural content. Initially designed for historical imagery, it is now also used to create subject access to texts and to classify a wide range of images, including modern photography. At the moment it contains over 28,000 unique concepts (classification types) and has an entry vocabulary of 14,000 keywords. It can be consulted with the help of the freely available Iconclass 2100 browser. Iconclass was developed in the Netherlands as a standard classification for recording collections, with the idea of assembling huge databases that will allow the retrieval of images featuring particular details, subjects or other common factors. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Iconclass)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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ieee lom

Learning Object Metadata is a data model, usually encoded in XML, used to describe a learning object and similar digital resources used to support learning. The purpose of learning object metadata is to support the reusability of learning objects, to aid discoverability, and to facilitate their interoperability, usually in the context of online learning management systems (LMS). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: IEEE LOM)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.7%.
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ims common cartridge

The Common Cartridge defines a new package interchange format for learning content, able to run on any compliant LMS platform. Version 1.0 supports the following features: rich content (html, xml, web links, media files); integrated assessments; discussion forums; authorisation for protected content. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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ims content packaging

A content package is a file containing content and metadata. A content package is used in e-learning to define some learning content or an assessment that can be delivered, for example by a Learning Management System. It's a standard way of describing learning content that can be read by many programs. The most widely used content packaging format is that defined by IMS Global, which uses an XML manifest file called imsmanifest.xml wrapped up inside a zip file. The learning content itself is either included in the zip file if it is HTML or other media that can run on its own, or else is referenced as a URL from within the manifest. The IMS format was used by SCORM to define their packaging format, and typically every SCORM content object (SCO) is defined by a content package. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Content package)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
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ims enterprise

The Enterprise Services specification is the definition of how systems manage the exchange of information that describes people, groups and memberships within the context of learning. The Enterprise Services specification is constructed following the recommendations documented in the IMS Abstract Framework. This means that this specification is based upon the concepts of: interoperability; service-oriented approach; component-based services; layering of services; multiple bindings (WSDL); adoption based upon the original Enterprise specification data model. While there are significant changes, the underlying data model has been maintained and the core Person, Group and Membership structures remain. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
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infrastructure as a service

Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS), deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualisation environment – as a service, along with raw (block) storage and networking. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis; the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Infrastructure as a service)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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infrastructure service

Infrastructure service provides a range of shared structured network services called on by content providers, brokers, aggregators, indexes, catalogues and portals. Infrastructural services include authentication, authorisation, service registry, user preferences, resolver, institutional profile, metadata schema registry and terminology services. (Excerpt from JISC Information Environment Glossary)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
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instant messaging

Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based communication between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared clients. The user's text is conveyed over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging software clients also allow enhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Instant messaging)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 1.2%.
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instructional design

Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically (process of teaching) and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: 1) analysis, 2) design, 3) development, 4) implementation, and 5) evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Instructional design)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
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Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) is a data grid software system developed by the Data Intensive Cyber Environments research group (developers of the SRB, the Storage Resource Broker), and collaborators. The iRODS system is based on expertise gained through a decade of applying the SRB technology in support of Data Grids, Digital Libraries, Persistent Archives, and Real-time Data Systems. iRODS management policies (sets of assertions these communities make about their digital collections) are characterized in iRODS Rules and state information. At the iRODS core, a Rule Engine interprets the Rules to decide how the system is to respond to various requests and conditions. iRODS is open source under a BSD license. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
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The International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to describe[clarification needed] a wide range of library materials within the context of a catalog. The consolidated edition of the ISBD was published in 2007. It superseded earlier separate ISBDs that were published for monographs, older monographic publications, cartographic materials, serials and other continuing resources, electronic resources, non-book materials, and printed music. IFLA's ISBD Review Group is responsible for maintaining the ISBD. One of the original purposes of the ISBD was to provide a standard form of bibliographic description that could be used to exchange records internationally. This would support IFLA's program of universal bibliographic control. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: International Standard Bibliographic Descriptio)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.4%.
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Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE is a widely used platform for server programming in the Java programming language. The Java platform (Enterprise Edition) differs from the Java Standard Edition Platform (Java SE) in that it adds libraries which provide functionality to deploy fault-tolerant, distributed, multi-tier Java software, based largely on modular components running on an application server. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Java Platform, Enterprise Edition)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
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