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Answers to frequently asked questions

Here you can find answers to 52 questions about this site, including guidance on some of its more advanced features.

For more answers to other frequently asked questions, see our FAQ categories links in right column.

category: questions about content

Design: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

This site includes all articles originally published in the previous versions of Ariadne.  

In migrating content, we have changed presentation to a more modern format whilst keeping intact the substance of articles 'as is'. Our focus in this process has been on maintaining the historical integrity of more than 1600 articles as these represent a substantial body of work reflecting developments in thinking and working since the commencement of publication in 1996.

In this migration process we have made tweaks to content such as the following:

  • including table of contents at start of each article, so that readers can easily scan main sections
  • producing improved editorial consistency in titles across more than 1600 articles (see examples)
  • providing comprehensive bibliographic citations as well guidance on content licences and 'How to cite this article' explanations included at end of each article
  • enhancing book review format to highlight book images and bibliographic information for books reviewed (see examples)

In moving Ariadne to a new platform, we have also provided a range of new features including:

We hope that you will find new features useful whilst exploring the full range of content provided by Ariadne, now more deeply interlinked.  You are welcome to contact us if you would like to share your thoughts about any previous articles or suggestions about topics for new articles. 

Terms of use: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Most articles on this site are published under copyright as explained in our general statement of access terms and copyright information.

Metadata related to automated tagging of article content is not subject to copyright, however, and tag metadata is freely available for re-use in several downloadable formats.

You can find confirmation of applicable copyright for content near the end of each article.

In cases where articles are published under Creative Commons licence, explanations are provided on relevant article pages.

Please note that some images on this site are subject to separate copyright and used under license from image providers; in such cases, we provide information about the licensing image provider in the 'alt' and 'title' tags of relevant images.

Inspecting details: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Please see our guidance on how to cite Ariadne articles, where you can find suggestions for bibliographic citation of each article published in Ariadne

In using this guidance, you have several options for producing sets of bibliographic citations:

  • 'Filter by author name' can help you produce citations for all articles written (or co-written) by a specified author (see example)
  • 'Filter by issue number' can help you produce citations for all articles within a specified issue (see example)
  • You can also filter by both author name and issue number (see example)

Our citations guide also provides you with options to download bibliographic citations in CSV and XML formats. For more information, see our FAQ explaining downloadable formats.

Content question: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

On this site you can find articles published in Ariadne since 1996, categorised into types of articles described below.  

Over the years, editors have commissioned different types of content as the scope of publication evolved.  In earlier issues some article types are more prevalent than in later years, and some article types are reduced or discontinued in later issues.

By following links in the left column below, you can see all articles in each category.

Here is an overview of article types, with brief explanations including numbers of articles in each category.

Article type Description
editorial

Editorials in Ariadne briefly introduce the content of each issue, highlighting themes of relevance to information professionals working in research, libraries, museums, archives, further education and higher education.

  • Total number of 'editorial' items in all Ariadne issues: 87
event report

Event reports in Ariadne provide in-depth summaries of conferences, workshops, and other activities of interest to information professionals.

  • Total number of 'event report' items in all Ariadne issues: 287
feature article

Feature articles in Ariadne are written by subject-matter experts invited to address topics of interest to information professionals.

  • Total number of 'feature article' items in all Ariadne issues: 560
news and events

Concise summaries of news and events in Ariadne call attention to developments of interest to information professionals.

  • Total number of 'news and events' items in all Ariadne issues: 49
odds and ends

The 'Odds and Ends' section in Ariadne offers light entertainment for information professionals.

  • Total number of 'odds and ends' items in all Ariadne issues: 39
project update

Project updates in Ariadne explain developments in projects of interest to information professionals.

  • Total number of 'project update' items in all Ariadne issues: 103
regular column

Regular columns in Ariadne cover topics of recurring interest to information professionals.

  • Total number of 'regular column' items in all Ariadne issues: 315
review

Reviews in Ariadne evaluate books and events of interest to information professionals.

  • Total number of 'review' items in all Ariadne issues: 194
tooled up

The 'Tooled Up' section in Ariadne explains technologies of interest to information professionals.

  • Total number of 'tooled up' items in all Ariadne issues: 110
People connections: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Authors contributing to Ariadne are based in many countries, as summarised below in our table displaying numbers of author profiles registered with specified locations.

By selecting links in the names of countries, you can see overviews of authors based in specified countries and can review further information about work domains and interests.

See our overview of locations and domain affiliations for more detailed information about author backgrounds.

Note: In early years of publication, some author details were not specified and therefore  information about some author backgrounds cannot be displayed in this overview.

Country Total author profiles Percent
england 388 63.7
united states 62 10.2
scotland 43 7.1
australia 26 4.3
netherlands 16 2.6
germany 11 1.8
japan 10 1.6
canada 8 1.3
wales 7 1.1
ireland 5 0.8
portugal 5 0.8
italy 4 0.7
france 3 0.5
greece 3 0.5
norway 3 0.5
south africa 3 0.5
sweden 3 0.5
austria 2 0.3
denmark 2 0.3
switzerland 2 0.3
argentina 1 0.2
armenia 1 0.2
belgium 1 0.2
israel 1 0.2
malta 1 0.2
new zealand 1 0.2
pakistan 1 0.2
Domain connections: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Authors contributing to Ariadne work in many domains, as summarised below in our table displaying numbers of author profiles registered with specified domain affiliations.

By selecting links in the names of domains, you can see overviews of authors by domain affiliations and review further information about work locations and interests.

See our overview of locations and domain affiliations for more detailed information about author backgrounds.

Note: In early years of publication, some information about contributors was not specified so their backgrounds cannot be displayed in this overview. As contributors often work in multiple domains, the sum of percentages in this table amounts to more than 100.

Author profile: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Author profiles on this site bring together key information about contributers. These profiles are based on information submitted by authors as of the date of their latest published articles.

As illustrated below, each author profile can display in one place the following:

  • information about work role (as of latest published article)
  • brief 'bio'
  • top tags summary
  • link to interactive data charts
  • overview of articles published by author, including brief summaries and links to all tags associated with articles
  • date when profile information was updated

In each case author profiles display the dates at which they were last updated.  In cases where authors have not published articles in Ariadne for some time, some author profile information may be out of date. This author profile information is retained for historical recording of author backgrounds as at latest dates of publication.

Authors wishing to have their author profiles adjusted are invited to contact Ariadne, providing updated information.

Screenshot: Author profile example
Guidance: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

We provide contextual guidance on site content and features, which you can access via expandable tabs on many overview pages across this site.

You can use this procedure to access contextual guidance:

  • click to expand the 'Questions? click here to display or hide explanations ...' section
     
  • read explanations and tips
     
  • when finished, click again (or re-load the page) to collapse explanations and return to an unobstructed view of content
Screenshot: Displaying explanations in expanding  'Questions?' tab
RSS feed icon: cc attribution www.flickr.com/photos/photopia/455572466

As explained in our tags overview page describing 'RSS', our RSS feeds (or 'channels') syndicating content on this site "include full or summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship".  

Often RSS feeds on our site also include enriched metadata, specifying a wide range of tags associated with content.

Technically, we provide RSS feeds on this site in RSS 2.0 format with content rendered as XML 1.0 and encoded as UTF-8.  

Wherever you find RSS icons (see illustration), these link to feeds exporting content and related metadata

Inspecting details: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

RSS feeds provide continously updated overviews of all content related to specified tags.

As illustrated in the example below (showing the RSS feed of 'uima' tag), feeds related to specific tags include:

  • titles and publication details of articles related to a tag
  • brief summaries of articles related to a tag
  • 'Read more ...' links to full text of a relevant article

By subscribing to RSS feeds, you can keep yourself informed as new articles are added to this site.

Screenshot: RSS feed of tagged content including titles, summaries, links
Inspecting question: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

RSS links on tag overview pages can help you access continually updated overviews of tag explanations.

As illustrated in the example below (showing RSS feed of trending keywords overview), feeds from tag overview pages include:

By following links to other RSS feeds, you can navigate through networks of RSS feeds to discover more content related to your interests.

Screenshot: Example of RSS feed showing keyword tag overview
Table of contents: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Tables of contents are generated automatically based on section headings of articles.

You can use each table of contents to:

  • scan main headings of articles
  • quickly navigate to sections of interest, by following links within table of contents headings

As illustrated below, 'hide' links can help you collapse table of contents blocks if you prefer to read without using indexed navigation.

Once hidden, table of contents blocks can easily be displayed again via toggled 'show' link.

Screenshot: Table of contents example
Streamlined: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Printer-friendly versions of pages on this site can help you print (or view) the main content of a page.

When following a printer-friendly link, you are presented with a streamlined version of the normal page without side-column content.  

You can then use your computer's normal printing process to send this streamlined page to your printer.

As illustrated below, 'Printer-friendly version' links are available on many pages on this site.

Screenshot: Printer-friendly link
Selection: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Our 'Gallery' provides an overview of selected, featured images from articles.  

As illustrated below, each gallery item highlights:

  • featured image from article
  • brief summary of article content
  • 'Read more ...' links to access full text of article (note that images also link to full article text)

You can narrow the focus to images from specific types of articles or issue numbers by using 'Filter by article type' and 'Filter by issue number' options.  

For example, you can use these filters to

  • show all featured images from reviews (see example)
  • show all featured images from issue 67 (see example)
  • show all featured images from reviews in issue 67 (see example)

As we do not set up featured images for all articles, 'Gallery' images do not preview all articles on this site.  Images are selected from articles published since 2003, so older articles are not previewed here.

The Information Society: A Study of Continuity and Change.

Muhammad Rafiq offers us a detailed review of a work, now in its sixth edition, which examines the information society, its origin, development, its associated issues and the current landscape.

Understanding Information and Computation, by Philip Tetlow

Martin White reviews a very individual perspective on the extent to which the growth and structure of the World Wide Web is governed by the fundamental laws of physics and mathematics.

Hydra community structure

Chris Awre reports on the Hydra UK event held on 22 November 2012 at the Library of the London School of Economics.

Opening of ‘Evaluating the Webscale Platforms & Their Impact on Librarianship'

Marlène Delhaye reports on the two-day annual conference organised by the French Agence Bibliographique de l’Enseignement Supérieur (ABES) held in Montpellier, France over 14-15 May 2013.

Crisis Information Management: Communication and technologies

Emma Tonkin offers a review of a thought-provoking overview of crisis informatics.

Man With Kindle Close Up. Image courtesy of Tina Phillips FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Martin White looks through the Ariadne archive to track the development of ebooks.

The Web 4 All Web site, University of Southampton

Brian Kelly, Jonathan Hassell, David Sloan, Dominik Lukeš, E A Draffan and Sarah Lewthwaite argue that rather than having a universal standard for Web accessibility, standardisation of Web accessibility practices and policies needs to be sufficiently flexible to cater for the local context.

User Studies for Digital Library Development

Selenay Aytac reviews a collection of essays on user studies and digital library development that provides a concise overview of a variety of digital library projects and examines major research trends relating to digital libraries.

Spreading the word: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Our site provides convenient ways to let others know about content of interest.  

As illustrated below, 'ShareThis' and 'Send to friend' options can be found on many pages.

  • 'Send to friend' helps you quickly send recommendations via email using a simple web form
     
  • 'ShareThis' helps you spread the word via social media services including Twitter, Facebook, Digg, StumbleUpon, and Delicious
Screenshot: 'ShareThis' and 'Send to friend' links

category: questions about filtering

Categorising question: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Filter options are available on many pages, designed to help you create your own views of content in ways highly adaptable to your specific interests.  Once you have used filter options to create your own customised overviews of content related to tags, you can also download content and metadata related to your custom overview in various formats.

We suggest that you consider using filter options when:

  • tag overviews list many items and you wish to focus on sub-sets as these would be easier to scan
  • you have strong interests in specific types of content (for instance, feature articles or review)
  • you would like to combine multiple filters to narrow the focus to content associated with various combinations of tags

As illustrated below, we have set filter option tabs hidden by default to make it easy to concentrate on what's most of interest. Whilst we expect that you will find some  filter options useful, we also understand that you above all are interested in the content itself (rather than in ways that it can be filtered and presented).

Subsequent FAQs in this 'filtering' category provide tips about how to display and use filter options, either one-by-one or in combinations

Screenshot: Filters available hidden by default
Gears: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

We provide a range of filter options on tag overview pages to help you narrow your focus to specific topics of interest.

As illustrated below, to reveal filter options on tag overview pages you can select 'Filters available' tab link.

You can hide filter options by selecting again 'Filters available' tab link.

Screenshot: Displaying options in 'Filters available' tab
Calibrating: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by term' can help narrow the focus of tag overview pages so they present sets of tags related to your specific interests.

As illustrated below (in keywords overview),  you can set up a filter to focus on 'rdf' so that only terms including the string 'rdf' are displayed:

  • 'rdf'
  • 'rdfa'
  • 'rdfs'

As this example illustrates, 'Filter by term' can accept partial strings.

To extend this further, you can also use this same filter to look for two (boolean 'OR') strings. For example, you could have this filter look for 'semantic rdf'. In that case, the filter list results such as:

  • 'semantic web'
  • 'semantic technologies'
  • 'rdf'
  • 'rdfa'
  • 'rdfs'

By using partial or multiple strings (boolean 'OR'), you can adjust filtering options in tag overviews to narrow or expand focus.

Screenshot: Filtering tag overview to display related terms: 'rdf'
Inspecting numbers: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Filters on tag overview pages are designed to reduce the number of articles displayed and narrow the focus to content matching your specific interests.

As illustrated below (in example of 'feature article' filter activated on content tagged with 'open access'), activated filters can result in:

  • actual number of articles displayed in a tag overview (in example screenshot: 90)
    being less than
  • total articles associated with a specified tag (in example screenshot: 193)

Whenever this actual number of article displayed is less than total articles tagged, you should keep in mind that you are viewing a sub-set of content available.

As described in our FAQ explaining how to re-set filters, it's easy to remove filters so that you can review all content associated with a tag.

Screenshot: Feature articles tagged with 'open access'
Recalibration: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

You can easily remove filter settings and return to a complete overview of tags at any time.

As illustrated below, on many pages we provide a convenient shortcut:

  •  select the 'remove all filters' link
  • automatically the page reloads and displays all available content associated with a tag

Alternatively, you can also do this:

  1. empty filter fields that you do not wish to use
  2. select 'Apply'
  3. when the page reloads, it displays all available content associated with a tag
Screenshot: Remove all filters link
Inspecting details: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by term' can help you narrow the focus to one or more specific terms of interest.  

Simply follow this procedure:

  • specify in the 'Filter by term' field your term(s) of interest
  • select 'Apply' to check for articles tagged with your filter term 

See our FAQ explaining how to find related sets of tags for more tips about using this 'Filter by term' option.

Inspecting names: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by author name' can help you narrow the focus to one or more authors of interest. Simply follow this procedure:

  • specify in the 'Filter by author name' field any name(s) of authors
  • select 'Apply' to check for relevant author tags 

Note that with this option you can specify either a complete name or part of a name. In cases where only part of a name is specified, this filter returns all tags including the partial string you have specified. 

Where it is available, the 'Filter by names starting with ...' option can help you divide sets of author names into smaller, more easily scanned alphabetical chunks.  You can use this procedure:

  • specify in the 'Filter by names starting with ...' field any letter of the alphabet (or first letters of author names that you are interested in)
  • select 'Apply' to check for author names of interest 
Inspecting types: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by article type' lets you zoom in on content when you are looking for a specific type of article.  Here is a list of article types available, with links to overviews of all articles within each category:

As illustrated below, you can use a 'Filter by article type' option in tag overview pages to narrow down a list of articles related to a tag. Using this filter in effect provides a double filtering: showing articles of a specified type that have been associated with a given tag.

When you use the 'Filter by article type' field to specify your preference, as you start typing the field automatically tries to show you available article types. You can then select 'Apply' to see an overview including only content of your preferred article type.  

In some cases you may find it useful to apply combinations of filters specifying keyword, organisation, project, author, and issue number options.  Each of these options, as well as some filter combination examples, are explained in FAQs that follow.

Screenshot: Filter by article type
Keywords: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by keyword' helps you discover content related to a specific term of interest.  

By using a 'Filter by keyword' field (near top of overview pages), you can narrow down a list of articles related to a tag. Using this filter in effect provides a layered filtering: showing tagged content related to a specified keyword tag.

Specify in the 'Filter by keyword' field your term of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags) and then select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your filter term. 

As illustrated below, in some cases you may wish to combine filters.  If you would like to find every 'feature article' mentioning 'dublin core', for example, then you could use activate both article type and keyword filters as in the example below.

Screenshot: Filter by keyword
Organisation: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by organisation' helps you discover content related to a specific organisation of interest.

By using a 'Filter by organisation' field (near top of overview pages), you can narrow down a list of articles related to a tag. Using this filter in effect provides a layered filtering: showing tagged content related to a specified organisation tag.

Specify in the 'Filter by organisation' field your term of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags) and then select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your filter term.

As illustrated below, in some cases you may wish to combine filters. If you would like to find every 'event report' mentioning 'dublin core' as well as the organisation 'cetis', for example, then you could activate three filters specifying article type, keyword, and organisation as in the example below.

Screenshot: Filter by organisation, cetis tag example
Project: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by project' helps you discover content related to a specific project of interest.

By using a 'Filter by project' field (near top of overview pages), you can narrow down a list of articles related to a tag. Using this filter in effect provides a layered filtering: showing tagged content related to a specified project tag.

Specify in the 'Filter by project' field your term of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags) and then select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your filter term.

As illustrated below, in some cases you may wish to combine filters. If you would like to find every 'event report' mentioning 'dublin core' as well as the organisation 'cetis' and the project 'iesr', for example, then you could activate four filters specifying article type, keywordorganisation, and project as in the example below.

Screenshot: Filter by project, 'iesr' project tag
Author: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by author' helps you discover content related to a specific author of interest.

By using a 'Filter by author' field (near top of overview pages), you can narrow down a list of articles related to a tag. Using this filter in effect provides a layered filtering: showing tagged content related to a specified author tag.

Specify in the 'Filter by author' field your person of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags) and then select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your specified author.

As illustrated below, in some cases you may wish to combine filters. If you would like to find every article mentioning 'metadata' by the author 'paul walk', for example, then you could activate two filters specifying keyword and author tags as in the example below.

Screenshot: Filter by author, 'paul walk' author tag
Magazine issues: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by issue number' helps you discover content related to a specific Ariande issue of interest.

By using a 'Filter by issue number' field (near top of overview pages), you can narrow down a list of articles related to a tag. Using this filter in effect provides a layered filtering: showing tagged content related to a specified issue number tag.

Specify in the 'Filter by issue number' field your issue of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags) and then select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your specified issue number.

As illustrated below, in some cases you may wish to combine filters. If you would like to find every article mentioning 'linked data' in the issue number 'issue67', for example, then you could activate two filters specifying keyword and issue number tags as in the example below.

Screenshot: Filter by issue number, 'issue67' example
Identifying location: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by city or town' can help you discover articles by authors based in specific locations.

By using this option (in the 'Filters available' tab of author overview pages), you can narrow down a list of authors to focus on those associated with cities and towns of interest. 

Follow this procedure to activate this filter:

  • Specify in the 'Filter by city or town' field your place of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags)
     
  • Select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your specified location.
Global location: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by country' can help you discover articles by authors based in specific locations.

By using this option (in the 'Filters available' tab of author overview pages), you can narrow down a list of authors to focus on those associated with countries of interest. 

Follow this procedure to activate this filter:

  • Specify in the 'Filter by country' field your place of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags)
     
  • Select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your specified location.
Work connections: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Filter by domain' can help you discover articles by authors working in specified professional domains.

By using this option (in the 'Filters available' tab of author overview pages), you can narrow down a list of authors to focus on those associated with domains of interest. 

Follow this procedure to activate this filter:

  • Specify in the 'Filter by domain' field your place of interest (as you start typing, the field automatically tries to show you relevant tags)
     
  • Select 'Apply' to check for content tagged with your specified location.
Inspecting details: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

As illustrated below, small question marks near filter names provide direct links to relevant FAQs explaining how each filter works.

If you are considering use of a filter and would like some guidance, you can follow its question mark link for a brief explanation plus tips about how it could be used in combination with other filters.

Screenshot: Links to guidance filtering options

category: questions about charts

Data analysis: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Charts on this site visually represent metadata generated by our automated tagging system.

Depending upon types of data available, charts are presented in several formats:

Charts described below show patterns of usage related to keywords, organisations, projects or authors tagged across more than 1600 articles on this site.

Timeline: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Timeline charts on this site display two sets of data over time: numbers of articles published and total usage of a term.

For instance, our automated tagging system produces a timeline chart for 'rdf' that shows 6 articles mentioning 'rdf' were published in October 2008, with total of 21 references to 'rdf' across those articles.  For that specified date, the green trend line showing number of articles is therefore set at 6 and the blue trend line monitoring total usage of term is set at 21.  

You can hide or show trend lines by selecting labels near top of a timeline chart:

  • click once to hide 'Total usage' trend lines
  • click again to display 'Total usage' trend lines

As timeline charts show peaks and troughs over time surveyed, these patterns can be interpreted as general trends in usage across all sources monitored.

Screenshot: Timeline monitoring 'rdf' articles count and total usage of term
Bands of recency: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Time segment charts on this site indicate bands of recency, comparing two sets of data over time:

  • articles count (inner ring) 
  • total usage of a term (outer ring) 

In each case, these so-called 'donut' charts display proportions of discussion over time:

  • green segments indicate the proportions of articles / total usage less than 1 year old
  • amber segments indicate the proportions of articles / total usage between 1 and 3 years old
  • red segments indicate the proportions of articles / total usage more than 3 years old

As illustrated below, our automated tagging system produces a bands of recency chart for 'rdf':

  • green segments indicate relatively few discussions of 'rdf' less than 1 year old (4.26% articles / 2.71% total usage)
  • amber segments indicate some more discussions to 'rdf' are between 1 and 3 years old (12.77% articles / 11.06% total usage)
  • red segments indicate most references to 'rdf' are more than 3 years old (82.98% articles / 86.23% total usage)

With these charts showing relative proportions of discussion over time, patterns can be interpreted as general indications of a topic's aging vs recency across all sources monitored.

Screenshot: Bands of recency chart for 'rdf'
Connections: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Top authors' and 'top terms' charts on this site monitor people and topics most frequently associated with tags

In each case, these 'stacked column' charts display extents of discussion:

  • green indicates numbers of articles tagged
  • blue indicates total usage of a specified term

As illustrated below, our automated tagging system produces a top authors chart for 'rdf':

  • green portions of columns show numbers of articles referring to 'rdf'
  • blue portions of columns indicate total usage of 'rdf'

The default view of each chart shows an overall comparison of articles and total usage.  To focus on either data set, you can select interactive labels atop each chart:

  • by de-selecting the 'articles' label, you can hide 'articles' data and focus on total usage
  • by de-selecting the 'total usage' label, you can hide 'total usage' data and focus on total numbers of articles

Labels the base of each column (circles in the screenshot below) are interactive hyperlinks, which can bring you directly to related data charts.  By following these links, you can navigate from chart to chart discovering related sequences of data visualisations.

Whether charts are monitoring 'top authors' associated with a tag, or 'top terms' associated with an author, these charts show relative intensities of engagement across all sources monitored.  Links in labels can help you identify authors most relevant to a tag and then see how authors engage with a range of topics related to tags of interest.

Screenshot: Top authors for 'rdf'
Long tail: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

'Long tail' charts on this site indicate relative distributions of tags associated with an authors or key topics

In each case, these 'scatter plot' charts display scopes of tag distribution:

  • red indicates top ten tags
  • blue indicates all other tags

As illustrated below, our automated tagging system produces a long tail: all authors chart for 'rdf':

  • red dots show relative distributions of articles / total usage for top 10 authors referring to 'rdf'
  • blue dots show relative distributions of articles / total usage for all other authors referring to 'rdf'

Beneath each chart you can find tag links and statistical information directly related to each of the dots in the chart above.  By following these tag links, you can move directly to overviews of articles directly related to each tag of interest and then navigate to further data charts.

Screenshot: All authors data charts and links

category: questions about tagging

Tagging content: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Tags on this site are non-hierarchical terms assigned to categorise and describe the content of articles. Specifically, tags are defined here as 'buzz' keywords or as the names of organisations, projects, and authors of interest.

Our tagging system is designed to facilitate discovery of related content across more than 1600 articles and to help monitor trends in discussion since Ariadne started publication in 1996.  

Specifically, this system looks for designated terms of interest, automatically tagging articles containing these terms (or close variants and synonyms).

In addition to our standard list of target terms, our system allows for some manual tagging of articles by editors.

Ideas: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Yes, we are continuously expanding and refining the automated tagging system used on this site.  

Our tagging system readily accommodates the listing of new target terms, management of synonyms, and specification of canonical terms.

If you are interested in a term not currently in our list of all tags tracked on this website, let us know.

By using the option in our feedback form to suggest additional keywords you would like us to consider monitoring, you can help us tune our automated tagging system to the evolving interests of readers.

Tagging content: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Our site provides several overviews of tags:

  • keywords overview: tags related to key topics tracked by this site
  • organisations overview: tags related to universities, companies, groups etc. discussed in Ariadne
  • projects overview: tags related to projects tracked by this site
  • authors overview: tags specifying names of authors and editors contributing to articles
  • issues overview: tags designating issue numbers

As illustrated below, each overview page includes descriptions, statistics, and links to charts related to tags.  Our next FAQs explain features of these overviews in more detail.

Screenshot: Overview of keyword tags
Related nodes: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Among the statistics provided by our site is the number of items related to a tag.  

As illustrated below, near the top of each overview page you can see the total of items tagged.  

Even if the overview runs over several pages, this total accounts for all items in the overview.

Whenever you use  'Filter by ...' options in overview pages, totals of items change accordingly.

Each total number of tags displayed takes into account filters that have been applied to an overview.

Screenshot: Total number of items related to a keyword tag
Inspecting content: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

When following any tag link, you will be presented with an overview of all articles related to your selected tag.

As illustrated below (with example of 'google' tag overview page), in addtion to a complete list of articles related to a tag each overview page also includes:

  • brief descriptions of tags
  • summaries of statistics
  • links to charts

As explained in 'Questions about filtering', tag overview pages include several 'Filter by ...' options to help you narrow the focus on specific topics of interest.

Route map: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Depending upon the content of each article, a range of tags are displayed in the right column of each article page.  

You can use these tags to find all related content:

  • Issue number tag links to overview of all content within a specified issue
  • Article type tags link to overviews of all articles of a specified type
  • Author tags link to overviews of all content by a specified author
  • Organisation tags link to overviews of all content mentioning a specified organisation
  • Project tags link to overviews of all content referring to a specified project
  • Buzz tags links to overviews of all content related to a specified term

As explained in 'Questions about filtering', when following links to tag overviews you will find several options to filter results and narrow your focus to specific items of interest.

Screenshot: Tags related to current post
Gears: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

This site provides options for exporting content and metadata in structured formats, which we hope that you will find convenient.

You can use 'CSV' or 'XML' or 'RSS' links (provided near the bottom of overview pages) to download sets of tag descriptions and related metadata.  

As illustrated below, this site offers a range of export options from tag overview pages:

  • our default feeds in CSV, XML, and RSS formats provide convenient ways to access 'selected' sets of content and data (typically limited to 40 items in a set)
  • these default feeds can be filtered (see FAQs explaining filtering), so you can narrow focus to smaller sub-sets of content and data specifically related to your interests
     
  • in some cases we also provide options for 'complete, paged' feeds, designed for exporting larger content and data sets
  • these optional 'complete, paged' feeds can help you access large sets of content and data efficiently (see our FAQ explanation of feed paging arrangements)

A couple reminders:

Screenshot: Links to CSV and XML and RSS data feeds
Gears: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

In some cases, where datasets are large, we provide options for 'complete, paged' CSV, XML, and RSS feeds designed for efficiency of size and speed in downloads.

As illustrated below, paged feeds start with the query-string parameter page=0.  Such feeds can then be incremented by adjustments of the query string, so that page=1 fetches the next set of data, page=2 fetches the next, etc.

Note that if you provide an invalid number in the query string when paging, and no such page exists in the feed, then the paged feed returns to the start of the feed (as if you had requested page=0).

With this paging arrangement, you can cycle through feeds of content and data in relatively small chunks, optimised for efficiency.

Screenshot: Paged XML feed, starting at page=0

category: questions about trends

Monitoring trends: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Our site uses several methods of tracking trends in discussion of key terms, organisations, and projects.

In addition to providing a range of interactive charts, our automated tagging system performs several calculations:

We hope that each of these calculations, as explained in the following FAQs, can help you better understand trends in discussion across a broad range of content on this site.

Data calculation: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

The 'recency score' of a tag on this site is calculated as the percentage of articles published in the last 52 weeks tagged with a specified term.

On this basis, recency scores range from 100 to 0:

  • 100 indicates that all references to a specified term occur within the most recent year
  • scores between 99 and 1 indicate relative proportions of references to a specified term occurring within the most recent year
  • 0 indicates that no references to a specified term occur within the most recent year

As such, recency score highlights emerging terms in discussion and it provide one of two key measures contributing to trending factor.

Note: 'bands of recency' charts provide more statistics on time-bands associated with a specific term. You can find 'bands of recency' statistics by following chart links  in overviews of keywords, organisations, and projects.

Screenshot: Top ten tags by recency score
Comparing data: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Our site provides overviews of tags with positive recency scores in several categories:

Based on how recency scores are calculated, tags with positive recency scores indicate emerging terms.  

As illustrated below, you can use 'Filter by term' options (see FAQs explaining filters) to compare and contrast recency scores across sets of tags.

Screenshot: recency scores in comparison
Data calculation: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

The 'recent frequent usage' of a tag on this site is calculated as the number of articles published in the last 52 weeks tagged with a specified term.

On this basis, recency frequent usage ranges from 0 upwards :

  • 0 indicates that no references to a specified term occur within the most recent year
  • higher numbers indicate total references to a specified term occurring within the most recent year

As such, recent frequent usage measures extent of topical discussion and it provides one of two key measures contributing to trending factor.

Note: 'bands of recency' charts provide more statistics on time-bands associated with a specific term. You can find 'bands of recency' statistics by following chart links  in overviews of keywords, organisations, and projects.

Screenshot: Top ten tags by recent frequent usage
Comparing data: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Our site provides overviews of tags with recent frequent usage in several categories:

Based on how recent frequent usage is calculated, tags with positive recent frequent usage have been discussed more or less intensely within the past year.  

In comparing and contrasting a set of tags, which are most recently discussed?

As illustrated below, you can use 'Filter by term' options (see FAQs explaining filters) to compare and contrast recency frequent usage across sets of tags.

Screenshot: Comparison of recent frequent usage across set of tags
Data calculation: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

The 'trending factor' of a tag on this site is calculated as recency score (RS) multiplied by recent frequent usage (RFU).

As such, trending factor indicates which emerging terms are discussed most intensely in articles within Ariadne.

Note: 'bands of recency' charts provide more statistics on time-bands associated with a specific term. You can find 'bands of recency' statistics by following chart links  in overviews of keywords, organisations, and projects.

Screenshot: Top ten tags by trending factor (tf)
Comparing data: copyright image, used under license from shutterstock.com

Which tags are actively trending?  Our site provides overviews of tags with positive trending factors in several categories:

Based on how trending factor is calculated, a tag with a positive trending factor is both highly topical and  recently emerging.  

As illustrated below, you can use 'Filter by term' options (see FAQs explaining filters) to compare and contrast trending factors across sets of tags.

Screenshot: Trending factor overview


by Dr. Radut