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Web Watch: An Accessibility Analysis of UK University Entry Points

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Brian Kelly reports on the accessibility of entry points of UK University Web sites.

The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (SENDA) came into effect on 1 st September 2002. The Act removes the previous exemption of education from the Disability Discrimination Act (1995), ensuring that discrimination against disabled students will be unlawful. Institutions will incur additional responsibilities in 2003, with the final sections of legislation coming into effect in 2005 [1].

The implications of the Act will be of much interest to institutional Web managers who will be concerned that inaccessible Web pages will render their institution liable to claims from disabled students who are unable to access resources due to accessibility barriers.

Although the SENDA legislation covers much more than Web resources, Web developers are fortunate that the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has, for several years, been active in addressing the accessibility of Web resources through the work of the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) [2]. Work carried out by the WAI includes the development of a set of guidelines for authors of Web pages. A number of organisations have developed tools which with help with the analysis of the accessibility of Web pages, based on the WAI guidelines.

In this WebWatch survey the Bobby accessibility checker [3] is used to report on the accessibility of the entry points to UK University Web sites.

About The Survey

The survey was carried out using the Web-based Bobby tool to analyse the accessibility of entry points of UK University Web sites. The results of the survey were recorded, including information on compliance with Bobby's A and AA guidelines and the numbers of Priority 1 (P1) and Priority 2 (P2) errors.

It should be noted that Bobby is only one of a range of accessibility testing tools. Bobby is used in this survey as it is probably the most well-known. A list of other accessibility testing tools is available on the W3C WAI Web site [4].

The Findings

Only four entry points appeared to provide AA compliance by having no Priority 1 or Priority 2 errors. These were the University of Bristol, the University of East London, the University of Sheffield and Writtle College.

Although the number of entry points which provide AA compliance is disappointing it is pleasing to note that seventy entry points appeared to provide A compliance by having no Priority 1 errors.

Discussion

Methodology

This survey addressed only accessibility aspects which could be detected by use of software. A more thorough accessibility audit would require use of manual testing. However this would be time-consuming to carry out.

However it can be said that although the survey could class pages as accessible which manual testing could prove to be inaccessible, the main conclusion of the survey is that the vast majority of pages have been found to be inaccessible to some extent.

It should be noted that a number of entry points contained frames or redirects to other pages. In a number of cases this meant that further analysis would be required in order to measure the accessibility of the page. Where redirects were implemented, the accessibility of the destination of the redirect was analysed. However in this survey elements of framed pages were not analysed.

Main Findings

A number of errors were caused by missing ALT attributes in IMG tags. The use of ALT attributes is important for access by users with speaking browsers or with images switched off (which may be the case for Web sites stored on devices with limited memory capacity, such as PDAs. As can be seen from Figure 1, the use of meaningful ALT attributes can allow a Web site to be used effectively (note click on the image to see a larger version).

-
Figure 1: University of Bristol Entry Point With And Without Images

For some of the errors reported by Bobby it may be more difficult to understand the accessibility problems. In order to highlight a number of accessibility problems which Bobby can find, we will review the errors found on entry points with only a few errors, as listed in the following table.

Table 1: Entry Points With Fewest Accessibility Errors
  Institution AA Compliant? P1 Errors P2 Errors Comments Try It
19 Bristol Y 0 0 AA approved Check
41 University of East London Y 0 0 AA Approved Check
133 Sheffield Y 0 0 AA Approved Check
160 Writtle Y 0 0 AA Approved Check
25 University of Wales Institute, Cardiff N 0 1 - 1 instance "Missing DOCTYPE" Check
27 University of Central Lancashire N 0 2 - 1 instance and 1 instance "Missing DOCTYPE" and "Use of absolute positioning" Check
81 London School of Economics N 0 1 - 4 instances "Use of absolute positioning" Check
92 Newman College N 0 1 - 72 instances "Use of absolute positioning" Check
97 Northern School of Contemporary Dance N 0 1 - 1 instances "Missing DOCTYPE" Check
103 Oxford N 0 1 - 4 instances "Use of absolute positioning" Check
125 College of St Mark and St John N 0 1 - 12 instances "Use of absolute positioning" Check
134 South Bank University N 0 1 - 53 instances "Use of absolute positioning" Check
162 York N 0 1 - 1 instance "Use of absolute positioning" Check

Although it appeared that Writtle College had no P1 or P2 errors subsequent analysis revealed that the HTML tages were generated by JavaScript. Since the Bobby tool does not process JavaScript, its findings were based on the page containing the JavaScript source code and not the output of the JavaScript.

The findings for the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC) reported a single occurrence of one P2 error:

Use a public text identifier in a DOCTYPE statement

This error indicates that the document does not contains a DOCTYPE at the start of the document of the form:

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">

The DOCTYPE is needed in order for the document to comply with HTML standards. If a document does not comply with HTML standards, although it may look fine in most browsers it may be difficult for conversion tools to convert the document to alternative formats, including accessible formats for use by specialist devices.

The findings for the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC) also illustrate a failing of automated tools. Although this would appear to have a high degree of accessibility, manual analysis reveals that the page contains a single image. This page is, to a certain extent, inaccessible. Although the page contains textual information requesting users to click for the next screen the quotation from the Sunday Times and the Award For Excellence are not available to users with text browsers.

The findings for the University of Central Lancashire reported two P2 errors: the missing DOCTYPE, as discussed above, and the need to:

Use relative sizing and positioning (% values) rather than absolute (pixels).

Absolute sizes make it difficult for users to resize elements on the screen, such as the size of text.

It should be noted that the entry point for the University of Central Lancashire Web site contained an image-based interface with minimal use of ALT attribute. However the page did provide access to a text-based Web site which was generated dynamically using the Betsie software [5].

The findings for the London School of Economics also showed one P2 errors: four instances of the need to use relative sizing. No fewer than 72 instances of this error were found on the Newman College Web site.

The Northern School of Contemporary Dance appeared to be missing only the DOCTYPE statement. However the entry point in fact contains a Shockwave page and users with a Shockwave plugin cannot access the Web site.

The entry points for the remaining Web sites listed in the Table contained a small number of instances of errors which have been mentioned previously, in particular the need to use relative sizing and positioning.

From these examples it can be seen that, in a number of cases, pages which appear to have a high degree of accessibility are, in fact, inaccessible. On the other hand pages which contain certain errors, such as a missing DOCTYPE, can be made to comply with accessibility guidelines by making relatively simple changes.

Other errors, such as replacing absolute positioning by relative positioning, may be subject to more debate with Web teams. This change, for example, is likely to alter the appearance of the page. However this change will ensure greater flexibility for the page. If an institution wishes to provide maximum flexibility it will be necessary to make such a change.

Conclusions

Many institutions will be aware of the SENDA legislation and of the work of the W3C WAI. Institutions will, I am sure, wish to minimise accessibility barriers to their Web sites. However the findings of this survey of entry points for institutions, the most important page on a Web site, show that there is clearly still much work to be done.


Appendix 1: Results

A summary of the findings is given in the following table.

Table 2: Bobby Analysis Of UK University Entry Points
  Institution A Compliant? AA Compliant? P1 Errors P2 Errors Comments Try It
1 Aberdeen N N 1 - 31 instances 1 - 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
2 Abertay Dundee Y N 0 1 - 16 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
3 Aberystwyth N N 1 - 8 instances 4 - 47 instances, 1 instance, 1 instance, 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
4 Anglia Polytechnic University N N 1 - 2 instances 2 - 22 instances and 14 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
5 Aston N N 1 - 1 instances 1 - 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
6 Bangor Y N 0 1 - 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
7 Bath Spa N N 1 - 2 instances 2 - 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
8 Bath Y N 0 2 - 30 instances and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
9 Queen's University of Belfast Y N 0 1 - 27 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
10 Bell College Y N 0 4 - 118 instances, 1 instance, 3 instances and 2 instances Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
11 Birkbeck College N N 2 - 1 instance and 10 instances 4 - 27 instances, 1 instance, 1 instance and 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
12 Birmingham Y N 0 3 - 25 instances, 1 instance and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
13 Bishop Grosseteste College N N 2 - 2 instance and 6 instances 4 - 26 instances, 1 instance, 10 instances and 1 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
14 Bolton Institute N N 1 - 47 instances 3 - 2 instances, 1 instance and 6 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
15 Arts Institute at Bournemouth         Web site not available [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
16 Bournemouth N N 2 - 2 instances and 41 instances 5 - 45 instances, 1 instance, 2 instances, 2 instances and 4 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
17 Bradford Y N 0 3 - 33 instances, 1 instance and 10 instances Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
18 Brighton N N 1 - 17 instances 4 - 3 instances, 1 instance, 7 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
19 Bristol Y Y 0 0 AA approved [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
20 Brunel Y N 0 3 - 9 instances, 6 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
21 Buckinghamshire Chilterns N N 1 - 7 instances 2 - 5 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
22 Cambridge Y N 0 2 - 5 instances and 3 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
23 Institute of Cancer Research Y N 0 1 - 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
24 Canterbury Christ Church N N 1 - 12 instances 3 - 6 instances, 15 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
25 Cardiff N N 1 - 49 instances 3 - 9 instances, 1 instance and 9 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
25 University of Wales Institute, Cardiff Y N 0 1 - 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
26 University of Central England N N 2 - 1 instance and 13 instances 4 - 69 instances, 1 instance, 5 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
27 University of Central Lancashire Y N 0 2 - 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
28 Central School of Speech and Drama Y N 0 3 - 18 instances, 1 instance and 9 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
29 Chester College N N 1 - 7 instances 2 - 58 instances and 4 instances Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
30 University College Chichester Y N 0 3 - 26 instances, 1 instance and 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
31 City University Y N 0 3 - 26 instances, 8 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
32 Courtauld Institute of Art N N 1 - 1 instances (frameset page) 1 - 2 instances(frameset page) Framed site. Only master frameset file analysed [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
33 Coventry N N Not analysed (framed site) Not analysed (framed site) Framed site [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
34 Cranfield N N 1 - 1 instance 1 - 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
35 Dartington College N N 1 - 11 instances 3 - 33 instances, 1 instance and 32 instances Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
36 De Montfort N N 1 - 17 instances 3 - 38 instances, 29 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
37 Derby N N 1 - 15 instance 2 - 93 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
38 Dundee Y N 0 3 - 43 instances, 10 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
39 Durham Y N 0 1 - 30 instances   [A - Check]
\n[AA - Check]
40 East Anglia Y N 0 1 - 66 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
41 University of East London Y Y 0 0 AA Approved [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
42 Edge Hill College N N 1 - 3 instances 3 - 23 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
43 Edinburgh College of Art N N 1 - 3 instances 3 - 99 instances, 2 instances and 1 instance Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
44 Edinburgh N N 1 - 3 instances 3 - 96 instances,2 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
45 Essex Y N 0 3 - 15 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
46 Exeter Y N 0 2 - 34 instances and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
47 Falmouth College N N 1 - 1 instance (frameset page) 1 - 3 instances (frameset page) Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
48 Glamorgan N N 1 - 22 instances 5 - 66 instances, 1 instance, 15 instances, 1 instance and 6 instances Redirect [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
49 Glasgow Caledonian Y N 0 1 - 4 instances Analyses page for selection of Flash screen, ... [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
50 Glasgow School of Art N N 1 - 2 instances 2 - 1 instance and 1 instance Splash screen with redirects after short period [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
51 Glasgow Y N 0 2 - 55 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
52 Gloucestershire Y N 0 1 - 40 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
53 Goldsmiths College N N 2 - 1 instance and 33 instances 4 - 30 instances, 1 instance, 1 instance and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
54 Greenwich Y N 0 1 - 90 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
55 Harper Adams N N 1 - 4 instances 4 - 18 instances, 1 instance, 17 instances and 1 instance Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
56 Heriot-Watt N N 1 - 54 instances 4 - 33 instances, 1 instance, 23 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
57 Hertfordshire Y (Frameset page) N 0 1 - 1 instance Framed site [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
58 Huddersfield N N 1 - 25 instances 3 - 26 instances, 1 instance and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
59 Hull N N 1 - 1 instance 5 - 2 instance, 1 instance, 1 instance, 1 instance and 1 instance Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
60 Imperial College N N 1 - 14 instances 3 - 52 instances, 3 instances and 1 instance Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
61 Institute of Education N N 2 - 1 instance and 22 instances 4 - 115 instances, 1 instance, 14 instances and 1 instance Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
62 Keele Y N 0 4 - 5 instances, 1 instance, 13 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
63 Kent Institute of Art and Design N N 1 - 27 instances 3 - 36 instances, 1 instance and 3 instances Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
64 Kent Y N 0 2 - 7 instances and 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
65 King Alfred's College N N 1 - 4 instances (frameset page) 0 (frameset page) Framed site. Only master frameset file analysed. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
66 King's College London N N 1 - 34 instances 3 - 41 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
67 Kingston Y N 0 4 - 78 instances, 1 instance, 6 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
68 Lampeter N N 1 - 3 instances 3 - 14 instances, 1 instance and 8 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
69 Lancaster Y N 0 4 - 15 instances, 1 instance, 10 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
70 Leeds Metropolitan University N N 1 - 3 instances 2 - 12 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
71 Leeds Y N 0 2 - 38 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
72 Leicester Y N 0 3 - 4 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
73 Lincoln N N 1 - 3 instances 4 - 6 instances, 1 instance, 2 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
74 Liverpool Hope N N 2 - 9 instances and 11 instances 3 - 89 instances, 1 instance and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
75 Liverpool John Moores University Y N 0 4 - 194 instances, 1 instance, 5 instances and 1 instance Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
76 Liverpool Y N 0 2 - 37 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
77 London Business School Y N 0 3 - 24 instances, 1 instance and 13 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
78 London Guildhall University N N 1 - 5 instances 4 - 38 instances, 1 instance, 12 instances and 2 instances Splash screen then redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
79 London Institute N N 1 - 3 instances 4 - 4 instances, 1 instance, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
80 University of London N N 1 - 6 instances 1 - 4 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
81 London School of Economics Y N 0 1 - 4 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
82 London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Y N 0 3 - 5 instances, 7 instances and 6 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
83 Loughborough N N 2 - 1 instance and 7 instances 2 - 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
84 Luton N N 1 - 2 instances (frameset page) 0 (framed page) Framed site. Only master frameset file analysed. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
85 UMIST Y N 0 2 - 15 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
86 Manchester Metropolitan University Y N 0 3 - 25 instances, 1 instance and 9 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
87 Manchester N N 1 - 15 instances 3 - 203 instances, 1 instance and 6 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
88 University of Wales College of Medicine N N 1 - 22 instances 2 - 52 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
89 Middlesex Y N 0 3 - 68 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
90 Napier N N 1 - 67 instances 3 - 70 instances, 1 instances and 22 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
91 Newcastle Y N 0 4 - 31 instances, 1 instance, 3 instances and 4 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
92 Newman College Y N 0 1 - 72 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
93 Newport N N 1 - 48 instances 4 - 14 instances, 1 instance, 4 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
94 North-East Wales Institute of Higher Education N N 1 - 10 instances 3 - 34 instances, 25 instances and 11 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
95 University of North London N N 1 - 86 instances 5 - 171 instances, 1 instance, 48 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
96 University College Northampton Y (Frameset page) Y (Frameset page) 0 (frameset page only analysed) 0 (framed page only analysed)   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
97 Northern School of Contemporary Dance Y N 0 1 - 1 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
98 University of Northumbria Y N 0 3 - 44 instances, 1 instance and 20 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
99 Norwich School of Art and Design N N 1 - 3 instances (frameset page) 1 - 1 instance (frameset page) Framed site. Only master frameset file analysed. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
100 Nottingham Trent University N N 2 - 1 instance and 20 instances 3 - 51 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
101 Nottingham Y N 0 3 - 28 instances, 1 instance and 15 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
102 Oxford Brookes Y N 0 3 - 5 instances, 5 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
103 Oxford Y N 0 1 - 4 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
104 Paisley N N 2 - 10 instances and 4 instances 3 - 32 instances, 1 instance and 8 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
105 Plymouth N N 0 2 - 33 instances and 18 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
106 Portsmouth N N 1 - 9 instances 3 - 39 instances, 1 instance and 21 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
107 Queen Margaret University College, N N 2 - 5 instances and 2 instances 3 - 30 instances, 115 instances and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
108 Queen Mary and Westfield College N N 2 - 23 instances and 2 instances 4 - 79 instances, 1 instance, 12 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
109 Ravensbourne College N N 1 - 36 instances 3 - 33 instances,1 instance and 11 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
110 Reading N N 1 - 8 instances 2 - 49 instances and 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
111 University of Wales, Registry Y N 0 3 - 19 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
112 Robert Gordon University Y N 0 3 - 44 instances, 11 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
113 University of Surrey, Roehampton N N 1 - 1 instances 4 - 4 instances,1 instance, 1 instance and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
114 Rose Bruford College N N 1 - 3 instances 3 - 10 instances,1 instance and 4 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
115 Royal Academy of Music N N 1 - 34 instances 2 - 35 instances and 9 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
116 Royal Agricultural College N N 2 - 2 instances 2 - 9 instances and 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
117 Royal College of Art Y N 0 1 - 4 instances Menu page for Flash or HTML site [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
118 Royal College of Music N N 1 - 10 instances 2 - 15 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
119 Royal Holloway Y Y 0 (frameset page) 0 (frameset page) Framed site. Only master frameset file analysed. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
120 Royal Northern College of Music N N 1 - 5 instances 2 - 12 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
121 Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama N N 1 - 5 instances 2 - 1 instance and 1 instance Redirected page. Redirect page uses frames. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
122 Royal Veterinary College N N 1 - 1 instances 6 - 28 instances, 3 instances, 1 instance, 7 instances, 2 instances and 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
123 St Andrews N N 1 - 1 instances 4 - 31 instances,1 instance, 12 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
124 St George's Hospital Medical School N N 1- 30 instances 6 - 1 instances, 7 instances, 1 instance, 9 instances, 1 instance and 6 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
125 College of St Mark and St John Y N 0 1 - 12 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
126 St Martin's College Y N 0 3 - 5 instances, 2 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
127 St Mary's College N N 1 - 1 instances 2 - 4 instances and 10 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
128 Salford Y N 0 3 - 51 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
129 School of Oriental and African Studies Y N 0 4 - 7 instances, 6 instances, 21 instances and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
130 School of Pharmacy N N 1 - 2 instances 3 - 50 instances, 1 instance and 11 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
131 Scottish Agricultural College N N 1 - 43 instances 3 - 115 instances, 4 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
132 Sheffield Hallam N N 1 - 68 instances 3 - 110 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
133 Sheffield Y Y 0 0 AA Approved [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
134 South Bank University Y N 0 1 - 53 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
135 Southampton Institute Y N 0 0   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
136 Southampton Y N 0 4 - 15 instances, 1 instance, 10 instances and 3 instances Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
137 Staffordshire   N 1 - 15 instances 3 - 42 instances, 8 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
138 Stirling N N 1 - 1 instance 2 - 34 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
139 Strathclyde Y N 0 2 - 8 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
140 Sunderland N N 1 - 7 instances 2 - 77 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
141 Surrey Institute of Art and Design N N 1 - 22 instances 2 - 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
142 Surrey Y N 0 2 - 25 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
143 Sussex N N 1 - 4 instances 2 - 44 instances and 8 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
144 Swansea Institute N N 1 - 20 instances 4 - 36 instances, 1 instance, 5 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
145 University of Wales, Swansea N N 1 - 6 instances 4 - 163 instances, 1 instance, 11 instances and 12 instances Redirect. Analysed redirected page. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
146 Teesside N N 1 - 49 instances 2 - 24 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
147 Thames Valley University N N 1 - 5 instances 3 - 28 instances, 1 instance and 19 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
148 Open University N N 1 - 6 instances (frameset page) 1 - 1 instance (frameset page) Framed site. Only master frameset file analysed. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
149 Trinity College of Music N N 1 - 5 instances (frameset page) 1 - 1 instance (frameset page) Framed site. Only master frameset file analysed. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
150 Trinity College, Carmarthen N N 1 - 98 instances 3 - 10 instances, 1 instance and 3 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
151 Trinity and All Saints College N N 1 - 7 instances 4 - 88 instances, 1 instance, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
152 Ulster N N 2 - 1 instance and 39 instances 4 - 50 instances, 2 instances, 3 instances and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
153 University College London Y N 0 2 - 16 instances and 7 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
154 Warwick Y N 0 4 - 15 instances, 1 instances, 10 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
155 Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama N N 2 - 1 instance and 3 instances 3 - 31 instances, 1 instance and 1   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
156 University of the West of England Y N 0 3 - 1 instance, 16 instances and 2 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
157 Westminster N N 1 - 7 instances 4 - 101 instances, 1 instance, 2 instances and 5 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
158 Wolverhampton N N 1 - 3 instances 3 - 10 instances, 1 instance and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
159 University College Worcester N N 1 - 4 instances 2 - 5 instances and 1 instances   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
160 Writtle College Y Y 0 0 Page created using JavaScript. [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
161 York St John College Y N 0 2 - 14 instances and 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]
162 York Y   0 1 - 1 instance   [A - Check]
[AA - Check]

The information in the table was initially collected on 7th August 2002. On this date the AA compliance data was obtained. The survey was repeated on 2nd September 2002, when A compliance data was obtained.

Note that a number of the entry points were found to contain a redirect. In cases in which the address of the redirected page was displayed in the browser the new location was analysed by Bobby.

References

  1. The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act, Sophie Corlett, Skill
    http://www.techdis.ac.uk/resources/skill01.html
  2. Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), W3C
    http://www.w3c.org/WAI/
  3. Bobby, Watchfire
    http://bobby.watchfire.com/
  4. Evaluation, Repair, and Transformation Tools for Web Content Accessibility, W3C
    http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/existingtools.html
  5. Betsie, BBC
    http://betsie.sourceforge.net/

Author Details

Picture of Brian Kelly Brian Kelly
UK Web Focus
UKOLN
University of Bath
Bath
BA2 7AY

Email: b.kelly@ukoln.ac.uk

Brian Kelly is UK Web Focus. He works for UKOLN, which is based at the University of Bath

 

Date published: 
10 October 2002

This article has been published under copyright; please see our access terms and copyright guidance regarding use of content from this article. See also our explanations of how to cite Ariadne articles for examples of bibliographic format.

How to cite this article

Brian Kelly. "Web Watch: An Accessibility Analysis of UK University Entry Points". October 2002, Ariadne Issue 33 http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue33/web-watch/


article | by Dr. Radut