Access Terms and Copyright Information

A few legalities and the like, applicable to all the content of Ariadne (text, pictures, and anything else).

The Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) originally made Ariadne available in electronic format in order to create awareness of Internet developments in the UK higher education LIS community; of the Electronic Libraries ('eLib) Programme, and of the JISC's Information Systems and Services Committee's ('ISSC') products and services.

Unless otherwise specified on a page, materials contained in Ariadne are subject to copyright and other proprietary rights. Permission is hereby given for the material in Ariadne to be used for research purposes or for private study. We ask that you observe the following conditions:

  • Please cite both individual author(s) and Ariadne when using the materials; for the latter, please cite the URL of the article. As Ariadne is (we hope) a permanent fixture, our URLs should be valid well into the future.  
  • See our citations guidance for examples of how to cite Ariadne articles.
  • Please do not abridge, alter, or edit material in any way. Any such abridgement or alteration could be an infringement of the author's Moral Rights. The Moral Rights of the authors of all works on Ariadne are asserted.

Any use other than for research or private study of these materials requires explicit, prior authorisation from the Ariadne editorial office, and the author.

Please note that some images on this site are subject to separate copyright and used under license from image providers; in such cases, we provide information about the licensing image provider in the 'alt' and 'title' tags of relevant images.

Ariadne accepts no responsibility for the views expressed in this publication.

Terms of use: copyright image, used under license from