Overview of content related to 'rdf' http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/32/all?article-type=&term=&organisation=&project=&author=richard%20gartner&issue= RSS feed with Ariadne content related to specified tag en The LIPARM Project: A New Approach to Parliamentary Metadata http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue70/gartner <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue70/gartner#author1">Richard Gartner</a> outlines a collaborative project which aims to link together the digitised UK Parliamentary record by providing a metadata scheme, controlled vocabularies and a Web-based interface.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Parliamentary historians in the United Kingdom are particularly fortunate as their key primary source, the record of Parliamentary proceedings, is almost entirely available in digitised form. Similarly, those needing to consult and study contemporary proceedings as scholars, journalists or citizens have access to the daily output of the UK's Parliaments and Assemblies in electronic form shortly after their proceedings take place.</p> <p>Unfortunately, the full potential of this resource for all of these users is limited by the fact that it is scattered throughout a heterogeneous information landscape and so cannot be approached as a unitary resource.&nbsp; It is not a simple process, for instance, to distinguish the same person if he or she appears in more than one of these collections or, for that matter, to identify the same legislation if it is referenced inconsistently in different resources. As a result, using it for searching or for more sophisticated analyses becomes problematic when one attempts to move beyond one of its constituent collections.</p> <p>Finding some mechanism to allow these collections to be linked and so used as a coherent, integrated resource has been on the wish-list of Parliamentary historians and other stakeholders in this area for some time. In the mid-2000s, for instance, the History of Parliament Trust brought together the custodians of several digitised collections to examine ways in which this could be done. In 2011, some of these ideas came to fruition when JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) funded a one-year project named LIPARM (Linking the Parliamentary Record through Metadata) which aimed to design a mechanism for encoding these linkages within XML architectures and to produce a working prototype for an interface which would enable the potential offered by this new methodology to be realised in practice.</p> <p>This article explains the rationale of the LIPARM Project and how it uses XML to link together core components of the Parliamentary record within a unified metadata scheme. It introduces the XML schema, Parliamentary Metadata Language (PML), which was created by the project and the set of controlled vocabularies for Parliamentary proceedings which the project also created to support it.&nbsp; It also discusses the experience of the project in converting two XML-encoded collections of Parliamentary proceedings to PML and work on the prototype Web-based union catalogue which will form the initial gateway to PML-encoded metadata.</p> <h2 id="Background:_The_Need_for_Integrated_Parliamentary_Metadata">Background: The Need for Integrated Parliamentary Metadata</h2> <p>The UK's Parliamentary record has been the focus of a number of major digitisation initiatives which have made its historical corpus available in almost its entirety: in addition, the current publishing operations of the four Parliaments and Assemblies in the UK ensure that the contemporary record is available in machine-readable form on a daily basis. Unfortunately, these collections have limited interoperability owing to their disparate approaches to data and metadata which renders the federated searching and browsing of their contents currently impossible. In addition, the disparity of platforms on which they are offered, and the wide diversity of user interfaces they use to present the data (as shown by the small sample in Figure 1), render extensive research a time-consuming and cumbersome process if it is necessary to extend its remit beyond the confines of a single collection.</p> <p style="text-align: center; "><img alt="Figure 1: Four major collections of Parliamentary proceedings, each using a different interface" src="http://ariadne-media.ukoln.info/grfx/img/issue70-gartner/liparm-figure1.png" style="width: 640px; height: 231px;" title="Figure 1: Four major collections of Parliamentary proceedings, each using a different interface" /></p> <p style="text-align: left; "><strong>Figure 1: Four major collections of Parliamentary proceedings, each using a different interface</strong></p> <p>A more integrated approach to Parliamentary metadata offers major potential for new research: it would, for instance, allow the comprehensive tracking of an individual's career, including all of their contributions to debates and proceedings. It would allow the process of legislation to be traced automatically, voting patterns to be analysed, and the emergence of themes and topics in Parliamentary history to be analysed on a large scale.</p> <p>One example of the linkages that could usefully be made in an integrated metadata architecture can be seen in the career of Sir James Craig, the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland from 1921 to 1940.&nbsp; Figure 2 illustrates some of the connections that could be made to represent his career:-</p> <p style="text-align: center; "><img alt="Figure 2: Sample of potential linkages for a Parliamentarian" src="http://ariadne-media.ukoln.info/grfx/img/issue70-gartner/figure2-james-craig-v3.jpg" style="width: 640px; height: 331px;" title="Figure 2: Sample of potential linkages for a Parliamentarian" /></p> <p style="text-align: center; "><strong>Figure 2: Sample of potential linkages for a Parliamentarian</strong></p> <p>The connections shown here are to the differing ways in which he is named in the written proceedings, to his tenures in both Houses, the constituencies he represented, the offices he held and the contributions he made to debates. Much more complex relationships are, of course, possible and desirable.</p> <p>The advantages of an integrated approach to metadata which would allow these connections to be made have long been recognised by practitioners in this field, and several attempts have been made to create potential strategies for realising them. But it was only in 2011 that these took more concrete form when a one-day meeting sponsored by JISC brought together representatives from the academic, publishing, library and archival sectors to devise a strategy for integrating Parliamentary metadata. Their report proposed the creation of an XML schema for linking core components of this record and the creation of a series of controlled vocabularies for these components which could form the basis of the semantic linkages to be encoded in the schema [<a href="#1">1</a>]. These proposals then formed the basis of a successful bid to JISC for a project to put them into practice: the result was the LIPARM (Linking the Parliamentary Record through Metadata) Project.</p> <p></p><p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue70/gartner" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue70 feature article richard gartner jisc kings college london library of congress national library of wales liparm archives cataloguing controlled vocabularies data digital library digitisation e-research identifier interoperability metadata multimedia national library rdf research research information management schema uri vocabularies xml xml schema Fri, 30 Nov 2012 19:41:15 +0000 lisrw 2391 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk