Overview of content related to 'wayback machine' http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/taxonomy/term/5207/all?article-type=&term=&organisation=&project=&author=&issue= RSS feed with Ariadne content related to specified tag en The Future of the Past of the Web http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue68/fpw11-rpt <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue68/fpw11-rpt#author1">Matthew Brack</a> reports on the one-day international workshop 'The Future of the Past of the Web' held at the British Library Conference Centre, London on 7 October, 2011.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>We have all heard at least some of the extraordinary statistics that attempt to capture the sheer size and ephemeral nature of the Web. According to the Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC), more than 70 new domains are registered and more than 500,000 documents are added to the Web every minute [<a href="#1">1</a>]. This scale, coupled with its ever-evolving use, present significant challenges to those concerned with preserving both the content and context of the Web.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue68/fpw11-rpt" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue68 event report matthew brack bbc british library bsi dcc digital preservation coalition google hanzo archives institute of historical research iso jisc kings college london library of congress nhs oxford internet institute the national archives university of oxford university of sheffield wellcome library arcomem internet archive memento uk government web archive aggregation algorithm api archives big data blog browser cache curation data data mining data model digital asset management digital curation digital library digital preservation digitisation dissemination doi flickr identifier interoperability library data lod metadata preservation repositories research search technology social web software tag cloud twitter ulcc uri url visualisation warc wayback machine web resources wordpress youtube Mon, 27 Feb 2012 12:06:52 +0000 lisrw 2236 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk Moving Targets: Web Preservation and Reference Management http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue62/davis <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue62/davis#author1">Richard Davis</a> discusses the role of Web preservation in reference management. This article is based on a presentation given at the Innovations in Reference Management workshop, January 2010.</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- v3: amended in light of author's further final-read revisions 2010-02-12-11-11 rew --><!-- v3: amended in light of author's further final-read revisions 2010-02-12-11-11 rew --><p>It seems fair to say that the lion's share of work on developing online tools for reference and citation management by students and researchers has focused on familiar types of publication. They generally comprise resources that can be neatly and discretely bound in the covers of a book or journal, or their electronic analogues, like the Portable Document Format (PDF): objects in established library or database systems, with ISBNs and ISSNs underwritten by the authority of formal publication and legal deposit.</p> <p>Yet, increasingly, native Web resources are also becoming eminently citable, and managing both the resources, and references to them, is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, the issues associated with referencing this kind of material have received comparatively little attention, beyond introducing the convention that includes the URL and the date it was accessed in bibliographies. While it may be hard to quantify the "average lifespan of a web page" [<a href="#1">1</a>], what is undeniable is that Web resources are highly volatile and prone to deletion or amendment without warning.</p> <p>Web Preservation is one field of endeavour which attempts to counter the Web's transient tendency, and a variety of approaches continue to be explored. The aim of this article is to convey the fairly simple message that many themes and concerns of Web preservation are equally relevant in the quest for effective reference management in academic research, particularly given the rate at which our dependence on Web-delivered resources is growing.</p> <p>Digital preservation is, naturally, a strong theme in the work of the University of London Computer Centre (ULCC)'s Digital Archives Department, and Web preservation has featured particularly strongly in recent years. This article will draw upon several initiatives with which we have been involved recently. These include: the 2008 JISC Preservation of Web Resources Project (JISC-PoWR) [<a href="#2">2</a>], on which we worked with Brian Kelly and Marieke Guy of UKOLN; our work for the UK Web Archiving Consortium; and the ongoing JISC ArchivePress Project [<a href="#3">3</a>] (itself, in many ways, a sequel to JISC-PoWR).</p> <p>Another perspective that I bring is as a part-time student myself, on the MSc E-Learning programme at Edinburgh University. As a consequence I have papers to read, and write, and a dissertation imminent. So for this reason too I have a stake in making it easier to keep track of information for reading lists, footnotes and bibliographies, whether with desktop tools or Web-based tools, or through features in online VLEs, databases and repositories.</p> <p></p><p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue62/davis" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue62 feature article richard davis british library dcc digital preservation coalition google intute jisc leiden university the national archives ukoln university of edinburgh university of london wellcome trust internet archive jisc information environment powr wikipedia archives atom blog browser cache content management cool uri copyright data database digital archive digital curation digital preservation document format e-learning framework higher education identifier metadata open access open source preservation repositories research rss standards ulcc uri url wayback machine web 2.0 web app web resources web standards wiki wordpress Sat, 30 Jan 2010 00:00:00 +0000 editor 1523 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk Abstract Modelling of Digital Identifiers http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue62/nicholas-et-al <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue62/nicholas-et-al#author1">Nick Nicholas</a>, <a href="/issue62/nicholas-et-al#author2">Nigel Ward</a> and <a href="/issue62/nicholas-et-al#author3">Kerry Blinco</a> present an information model of digital identifiers, to help bring clarity to the vocabulary debates from which this field has suffered.</p> </div> </div> </div> <!-- v2, incorporating author review edits inc. lead-ins to bullet lists - 2010-02-12-19-30-rew--><!-- v2, incorporating author review edits inc. lead-ins to bullet lists - 2010-02-12-19-30-rew--><p>Discussion of digital identifiers, and persistent identifiers in particular, has often been confused by differences in underlying assumptions and approaches. To bring more clarity to such discussions, the PILIN Project has devised an abstract model of identifiers and identifier services, which is presented here in summary. Given such an abstract model, it is possible to compare different identifier schemes, despite variations in terminology; and policies and strategies can be formulated for persistence without committing to particular systems. The abstract model is formal and layered; in this article, we give an overview of the distinctions made in the model. This presentation is not exhaustive, but it presents some of the key concepts represented, and some of the insights that result.</p> <p>The main goal of the Persistent Identifier Linking Infrastructure (PILIN) project [<a href="#1">1</a>] has been to scope the infrastructure necessary for a national persistent identifier service. There are a variety of approaches and technologies already on offer for persistent digital identification of objects. But true identity persistence cannot be bound to particular technologies, domain policies, or information models: any formulation of a persistent identifier strategy needs to outlast current technologies, if the identifiers are to remain persistent in the long term.</p> <p>For that reason, PILIN has modelled the digital identifier space in the abstract. It has arrived at an ontology [<a href="#2">2</a>] and a service model [<a href="#3">3</a>] for digital identifiers, and for how they are used and managed, building on previous work in the identifier field [<a href="#4">4</a>] (including the thinking behind URI [<a href="#5">5</a>], DOI [<a href="#6">6</a>], XRI [<a href="#7">7</a>] and ARK [<a href="#8">8</a>]), as well as semiotic theory [<a href="#9">9</a>]. The ontology, as an abstract model, addresses the question 'what is (and isn't) an identifier?' and 'what does an identifier management system do?'. This more abstract view also brings clarity to the ongoing conversation of whether URIs can be (and should be) universal persistent identifiers.</p> <h2 id="Identifier_Model">Identifier Model</h2> <p>For the identifier model to be abstract, it cannot commit to a particular information model. The notion of an identifier depends crucially on the understanding that an identifier only identifies one distinct thing. But different domains will have different understandings of what things are distinct from each other, and what can legitimately count as a single thing. (This includes aggregations of objects, and different versions or snapshots of objects.) In order for the abstract identifier model to be applicable to all those domains, it cannot impose its own definitions of what things are distinct: it must rely on the distinctions specific to the domain.</p> <p>This means that information modelling is a critical prerequisite to introducing identifiers to a domain, as we discuss elsewhere [<a href="#10">10</a>]: identifier users should be able to tell whether any changes in a thing's content, presentation, or location mean it is no longer identified by the same identifier (i.e. whether the identifier is restricted to a particular version, format, or copy).</p> <p>The abstract identifier model also cannot commit to any particular protocols or service models. In fact, the abstract identifier model should not even presume the Internet as a medium. A sufficiently abstract model of identifiers should apply just as much to URLs as it does to ISBNs, or names of sheep; the model should not be inherently digital, in order to avoid restricting our understanding of identifiers to the current state of digital technologies. This means that our model of identifiers comes close to the understanding in semiotics of signs, as our definitions below make clear.</p> <p>There are two important distinctions between digital identifiers and other signs which we needed to capture. First, identifiers are managed through some system, in order to guarantee the stability of certain properties of the identifier. This is different to other signs, whose meaning is constantly renegotiated in a community. Those identifier properties requiring guarantees include the accountability and persistence of various facets of the identifier—most crucially, what is being identified. For digital identifiers, the <strong>identifier management system</strong> involves registries, accessed through defined services. An HTTP server, a PURL [<a href="#11">11</a>] registry, and an XRI registry are all instances of identifier management systems.</p> <p>Second, digital identifiers are straightforwardly <strong>actionable</strong>: actions can be made to happen in connection with the identifier. Those actions involve interacting with computers, rather than other people: the computer consistently does what the system specifies is to be done with the identifier, and has no latitude for subjective interpretation. This is in contrast with human language, which can involve complex processes of interpretation, and where there can be considerable disconnect between what a speaker intends and how a listener reacts. Because the interactions involved are much simpler, the model can concentrate on two actions which are core to digital identifiers, but which are only part of the picture in human communication: working out what is being identified (<em>resolution</em>), and accessing a representation of what is identified (<em>retrieval</em>).</p> <p>So to model managing and acting on digital identifiers, we need a concept of things that can be identified, names for things, and the relations between them. (Semiotics already gives us such concepts.) We also need a model of the systems through which identifiers are managed and acted on; what those systems do, and who requests them to do so; and what aspects of identifiers the systems manage.</p> <p>Our identifier model (as an ontology) thus encompasses:</p> <ul> <li><strong>Entities</strong> - including actors and identifier systems;</li> <li><strong>Relations</strong> between entities;</li> <li><strong>Qualities</strong>, as desirable properties of entities. Actions are typically undertaken in order to make qualities apply to entities.</li> <li><strong>Actions</strong>, as the processes carried out on entities (and corresponding to <strong>services</strong> in implementations);</li> </ul> <p>An individual identifier system can be modelled using concepts from the ontology, with an identifier system model.</p> <p>In the remainder of this article, we go through the various concepts introduced in the model under these classes. We present the concept definitions under each section, before discussing issues that arise out of them. <em>Resolution</em> and <em>Retrieval</em> are crucial actions for identifiers, whose definition involves distinct issues; they are discussed separately from other Actions. We briefly discuss the standing of HTTP URIs in the model at the end.</p> <p></p><p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue62/nicholas-et-al" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue62 feature article kerry blinco nick nicholas nigel ward d-lib magazine dest ietf oasis internet archive aggregation archives ark ascii browser cataloguing cool uri cordra curation data database digital object identifier dns document management doi e-learning ftp identifier infrastructure interoperability learning objects metadata mobile mobile phone namespace ontologies openurl persistent identifier purl repositories research rfc search technology semantic web semiotic service usage model uri url vocabularies wayback machine web browser xml xml namespaces Sat, 30 Jan 2010 00:00:00 +0000 editor 1528 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk JISC Digital Content Conference 2009 http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue60/jisc-digi-content-rpt <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue60/jisc-digi-content-rpt#author1">Michelle Pauli</a> reports on a two-day conference on digital content held by JISC in South Cerney over 30 June - 1 July 2009.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue60/jisc-digi-content-rpt" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue60 event report michelle pauli british library california digital library google jisc manchester metropolitan university microsoft open university university of oxford internet archive shakespeare quartos archive archives blog content management copyright creative commons data data mining digital library digital media digital preservation digitisation ejournal facebook higher education infrastructure intellectual property interoperability licence mobile multimedia oer open access preservation research search technology twitter video wayback machine web 2.0 wiki Wed, 29 Jul 2009 23:00:00 +0000 editor 1497 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk Editorial Introduction to Issue 52: The New Invisible Industry http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue52/editorial <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue52/editorial#author1">Richard Waller</a> introduces Ariadne issue 52.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>We are frequently reminded that, in a globalised market place, industrialised countries must ever look to a developing knowledge-based economy to ensure the green shoots of competitive innovation keep sprouting. Whether all governments have been as quick to invest whole-heartedly in the research that sustains that knowledge-based economy remains to be seen.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue52/editorial" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue52 editorial richard waller bbc british library glasgow caledonian university michigan state university university of cambridge ethosnet subject portals project archives digital repositories electronic theses framework higher education infrastructure open access open source portal preservation rae repositories research search technology software usability wayback machine Sun, 29 Jul 2007 23:00:00 +0000 editor 1324 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk IIPC Web Archiving Toolset Performance Testing at The British Library http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue52/pope-beresford <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue52/pope-beresford#author1">Jackson Pope</a> and <a href="/issue52/pope-beresford#author2">Philip Beresford</a> pick up the threads from an initial contribution in <a href="/issue50/beresford">issue 50</a> and report on progress at The British Library in installing and performance testing the Web Curator Tool.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>The British Library is adopting the International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC) Toolset [<a href="#1">1</a>] - comprising the Web Curator Tool (WCT), NutchWax and the Open Source Wayback Machine (OSWM) for its evolving Web archiving operations, in anticipation of Legal Deposit legislation being introduced within the next few years. The aim of this performance-testing stage was to evaluate what hardware would be required to run the toolset in a production environment.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue52/pope-beresford" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue52 feature article jackson pope philip beresford british library national library of the netherlands wikipedia archives data framework hadoop html local storage national library open source preservation search technology software standards wayback machine Sun, 29 Jul 2007 23:00:00 +0000 editor 1332 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk Search Engines: Why Ask Me, and Does 'X' Mark the Spot? http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue51/search-engines <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue51/search-engines#author1">Phil Bradley</a> takes a look at different versions of Ask to see how it is developing and looks at how it is emerging from its servant roots.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue51/search-engines" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue51 feature article phil bradley amazon bbc google microsoft internet archive wikipedia archives blog bmp cache data digital library file format flickr identifier rss search technology thesaurus url video wayback machine wordnet zip Sun, 29 Apr 2007 23:00:00 +0000 editor 1310 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk Web Curator Tool http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue50/beresford <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue50/beresford#author1">Philip Beresford</a> tells the story (from The British Library's perspective) of the development of new software to aid all stages of harvesting Web sites for preservation.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>In September 2006 The National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, The British Library and Sytec, announced the successful development of a Web harvesting management system.</p> <p>The system, known as Web Curator Tool, is designed to assist curators of digital archives in collecting Web-published material for storage and preservation.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue50/beresford" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue50 feature article philip beresford british library jisc library of congress microsoft national library of australia national library of new zealand national library of wales oracle the national archives wellcome library wellcome trust internet archive apache apache license archives cataloguing collection development content management data database digital archive digital asset management digital repositories dublin core framework heritrix higher education java licence linux metadata mysql national library open source preservation repositories research search technology soap software solaris sql sql server standards tomcat url video warc wayback machine Tue, 30 Jan 2007 00:00:00 +0000 editor 1288 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk A Foundation for Automatic Digital Preservation http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue48/ferreira-et-al <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue48/ferreira-et-al#author1">Miguel Ferreira</a>, <a href="/issue48/ferreira-et-al#author2">Ana Alice Baptista</a> and <a href="/issue48/ferreira-et-al#author3">Jose Carlos Ramalho</a> propose a Service-Oriented Architecture to help cultural heritage institutions to accomplish automatic digital preservation.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Efforts to archive a large amount of digital material are being developed by many cultural heritage institutions. We have evidence of this in the numerous initiatives aiming to harvest the Web [<a href="#1">1-5</a>] together with the impressive burgeoning of institutional repositories [<a href="#6">6</a>]. However, getting the material inside the archive is just the beginning for any initiative concerned with the long-term preservation of digital materials.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue48/ferreira-et-al" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue48 feature article ana alice baptista jose carlos ramalho miguel ferreira carnegie mellon university d-lib magazine dcc digital preservation coalition google harvard university ieee ifla library of congress oais oasis oclc premis the national archives university of cambridge university of edinburgh university of minho crib reposit algorithm archives ascii bibliographic data controlled vocabularies data data set database digital archive digital curation digital library digital media digital preservation digital record object identification digital repositories dissemination document format drm droid dspace dublin core eprints fedora commons file format framework google trends graphics identifier interoperability java jstor knowledge base licence metadata open source operating system preservation preservation metadata repositories research semantic web service oriented architecture service registry soa soap software standards taxonomy uddi video vocabularies wayback machine web services wsdl xml Sat, 29 Jul 2006 23:00:00 +0000 editor 1254 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk Search Engines: Where We Were, Are Now, and Will Ever Be http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue47/search-engines <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue47/search-engines#author1">Phil Bradley</a> takes a look at the development of search engines over the lifetime of Ariadne and points to what we might anticipate in the years to come.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Unfortunately, I was unable to contribute to the decennial issue at the editors' invitation due to a family bereavement, but since it was such a good idea to take a look back at where we were, and then relate it to the present day and beyond, I did not want to miss the opportunity in this issue.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue47/search-engines" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue47 feature article phil bradley google internet archive aggregation archives blog database graphics identifier mobile mobile phone personalisation portal rfid search technology video wayback machine web 2.0 Sat, 29 Apr 2006 23:00:00 +0000 editor 1226 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk Excuse Me... Some Digital Preservation Fallacies? http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue46/rusbridge <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue46/rusbridge#author1">Chris Rusbridge</a> argues with himself about some of the assumptions behind digital preservation thinking.</p> </div> </div> </div> <h2 id="Excuse_me...">Excuse me...</h2> <p>I have been asked to write an article for the tenth anniversary of <em>Ariadne</em>, a venture that I have enjoyed, off and on, since its inception in 1996 as part of the eLib Programme, of which I was then Programme Director.</p> <p>Some years ago I wrote an article entitled "After eLib" [<a href="#1">1</a>] for <em>Ariadne</em>. The original suggestion was for a follow-up "even more after eLib"; however, I now work for JISC, and that probably makes it hard to be objective!</p> <p>In "After eLib", I wrote this paragraph about digital preservation:</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue46/rusbridge" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue46 feature article chris rusbridge andrew w mellon foundation british library california digital library d-lib magazine dcc harvard university jisc microsoft national library of the netherlands oais the national archives university of edinburgh elib internet archive archives browser curation data digital curation digital library digital preservation digital repositories file format gopher graphics infrastructure interoperability metadata microsoft office national library open source preservation preservation metadata provenance repositories research software wayback machine web browser Wed, 08 Feb 2006 00:00:00 +0000 editor 1211 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk WebWatch: Surfing Historical UK University Web Sites http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/web-watch <div class="field field-type-text field-field-teaser-article"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><a href="/issue35/web-watch#author1">Brian Kelly</a> outlines strategies for choosing appropriate standards for building Web sites.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>It has been said that those who ignore history, are condemned to repeat it. In the Web world we can be so excited by new developments that we may forget approaches we have taken in the past and fail to learn from our mistakes. This article describes how the WayBack Machine <a href="#ref-01">[1]</a> was used to look at the history of UK University Web sites.</p> <p><a href="http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue35/web-watch" target="_blank">read more</a></p> issue35 tooled up brian kelly birkbeck college birmingham city university central school of speech and drama courtauld institute of art de montfort university edinburgh college of art glasgow school of art goldsmiths college google imperial college london kings college london leeds metropolitan university liverpool john moores university london business school london school of economics manchester metropolitan university nottingham trent university open university queens university belfast robert gordon university rose bruford college royal academy of music royal agricultural college royal college of art royal college of music royal conservatoire of scotland royal holloway royal northern college of music royal veterinary college royal welsh college of music and drama school of oriental and african studies south bank university surrey institute of art & design ukoln university college london university of bath university of cambridge university of central lancashire university of east london university of london university of oxford university of surrey university of the west of england university of wales university of west london internet archive archives browser digital preservation flash higher education internet explorer intranet java javascript preservation research search technology standards url wayback machine Tue, 29 Apr 2003 23:00:00 +0000 editor 953 at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk