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This page provides an overview of 595 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Total articles Total usage Trending factorsort icon Charts


Digital rights management (DRM) is a term for access control technologies that are used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders and individuals to limit the use of digital content and devices. The term is used to describe any technology that inhibits uses of digital content that is not desired or intended by the content provider. The term does not generally refer to other forms of copy protection, which can be circumvented without modifying the file or device, such as serial numbers or keyfiles. It can also refer to restrictions associated with specific instances of digital works or devices. Digital rights management is used by companies such as Sony, Amazon, Apple Inc., Microsoft, AOL and the BBC. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Digital rights management)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 1.2%.
21 84


DROID (Digital Record Object Identification) is an automatic file format identification tool. It is the first in a planned series of tools developed by The National Archives under the umbrella of its PRONOM technical registry service. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.6%.
10 44


Drupal is a free and open source content management system (CMS) and Content Management framework (CMF) written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. It is used as a back-end system for at least 1.5% of all websites worldwide ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political, and government sites including and It is also used for knowledge management and business collaboration. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Drupal)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.6%.
10 113


Document Type Definition (DTD) is a set of markup declarations that define a document type for SGML-family markup languages (SGML, XML, HTML). DTDs were a precursor to XML schema and have a similar function, although different capabilities. DTDs use a terse formal syntax that declares precisely which elements and references may appear where in the document of the particular type, and what the elements' contents and attributes are. DTDs also declare entities which may be used in the instance document. XML uses a subset of SGML DTD. As of 2009 newer XML Namespace-aware schema languages (such as W3C XML Schema and ISO RELAX NG) have largely superseded DTDs. A namespace-aware version of DTDs is being developed as Part 9 of ISO DSDL. DTDs persist in applications which need special publishing characters such as the XML and HTML Character Entity References, which were derived from the larger sets defined as part of the ISO SGML standard effort. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: DTD)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.1%.
36 91

dublin core metadata initiative

The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) incorporated as an independent entity (separating from OCLC) in 2008 that provides an open forum for the development of interoperable online metadata standards for a broad range of purposes and of business models. DCMI's activities include consensus-driven working groups, global conferences and workshops, standards liaison, and educational efforts to promote widespread acceptance of metadata standards and practices. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.4%.
41 59


Electronic business, commonly referred to as "eBusiness" or "e-business", or an internet business, may be defined as the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in support of all the activities of business. Commerce constitutes the exchange of products and services between businesses, groups and individuals and can be seen as one of the essential activities of any business. Electronic commerce focuses on the use of ICT to enable the external activities and relationships of the business with individuals, groups and other businesses. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: eBusiness)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 1.4%.
25 39


E-Government (short for electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government, or connected government) is digital interactions between a government and citizens (G2C), government and businesses/Commerce (G2B), government and employees, and also between government and governments /agencies (G2G). Essentially, the e-Government delivery models can be briefly summed up as (Jeong, 2007): G2C (Government to Citizens); G2B (Government to Businesses); G2E (Government to Employees); G2G (Government to Governments). This digital interaction consists of governance, information and communication technology (ICT), business process re-engineering (BPR), and e-citizen at all levels of government (city, state/provence, national, and international). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: E-Government)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.8%.
49 132


ECMAScript is the scripting language standardized by Ecma International in the ECMA-262 specification and ISO/IEC 16262. The language is widely used for client-side scripting on the web, in the form of several well-known dialects such as JavaScript, JScript, and ActionScript. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: ECMAScript)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 2


An Electronic Copyright Management System (ECMS) is a scheme to make digital works harder to copy and easier to license. Some of these schemes emphasize the technology of making works 'harder to copy'; others emphasize ways of making it 'easier to pay for copying.' Commonly both elements are present, so the emphasis is a matter of degree. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
9 99


Electronic Document and Records Management System (EDRMS) is a type of content management system and refers to the combined technologies of document management and records management systems as an integrated system. Electronic document and records management aims to enable organizations to manage documents and records throughout the document life-cycle, from creation to destruction. Typically, systems consider a document a work in progress until it has undergone review, approval, lock-down and (potentially) publication, at which point it becomes a formal record within the organization. Once a document achieves the status of a record, the organization may apply best-practice or legally enforced retention policies which state how the second half of the record life-cycle will progress. This typically involves retention (and protection from change), until some events occur which relate to the record and which trigger the final disposition schedule to apply to the record. Eventually, typically at a set time after these events, the record undergoes destruction. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: EDRMS)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 4


Electronic journals, also known as ejournals, e-journals, and electronic serials, are scholarly journals or intellectual magazines that can be accessed via electronic transmission. In practice, this means that they are usually published on the Web. They are a specialized form of electronic document: they have the purpose of providing material for academic research and study, and they are formatted approximately like journal articles in traditional printed journals. Being in electronic form, articles sometimes contain metadata that can be entered into specialized databases, such as DOAJ or OACI, as well as the databases and search-engines for the academic discipline concerned. Some electronic journals are online-only journals; some are online versions of printed journals, and some consist of the online equivalent of a printed journal, but with additional online-only (sometimes video and interactive media) material. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Electronic journal)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 5.6%.
97 333


Elluminate Live! is a web conferencing program developed by Elluminate Inc. Elluminate "rents" out virtual rooms or vSpaces where virtual schools and businesses can hold classes and meetings. While Elluminate is primarily designed and used for educational purposes, it is also used by training organizations and corporations. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Elluminate)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
4 43


An electronic portfolio, also known as an e-portfolio or digital portfolio, is a collection of electronic evidence assembled and managed by a user, usually on the Web. Such electronic evidence may include inputted text, electronic files, images, multimedia, blog entries, and hyperlinks. E-portfolios are both demonstrations of the user's abilities and platforms for self-expression, and, if they are online, they can be maintained dynamically over time. Some e-portfolio applications permit varying degrees of audience access, so the same portfolio might be used for multiple purposes. An e-portfolio can be seen as a type of learning record that provides actual evidence of achievement. Learning records are closely related to the Learning Plan, an emerging tool that is being used to manage learning by individuals, teams, communities of interest, and organizations. To the extent that a Personal Learning Environment captures and displays a learning record, it also might be understood to be an electronic portfolio. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: E-portfolio)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.6%.
11 17


EQUELLA is a digital repository that provides one system to house teaching and learning, research, media and library content. EQUELLA has been deployed for copyright resource collections, research materials, managing and exposing materials through web sites and portals, content authoring, workflow, institutional policy and document management. EQUELLA is currently in use in a wide range of schools, districts, universities, community colleges, state systems and departments of education, government. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 1


Exchangeable image file format (Exif) is a standard that specifies the formats for images, sound, and ancillary tags used by digital cameras (including smartphones), scanners and other systems handling image and sound files recorded by digital cameras. The specification uses the following existing file formats with the addition of specific metadata tags: JPEG DCT for compressed image files, TIFF Rev. 6.0 (RGB or YCbCr) for uncompressed image files, and RIFF WAV for audio files (Linear PCM or ITU-T G.711 μ-Law PCM for uncompressed audio data, and IMA-ADPCM for compressed audio data). It is not supported in JPEG 2000, PNG, or GIF. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Exif)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 18

file format

A file format is a particular way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. Since a disk drive, or indeed any computer storage, can store only bits, the computer must have some way of converting information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. There are different kinds of formats for different kinds of information. Within any format type, e.g., word processor documents, there will typically be several different formats. Sometimes these formats compete with each other. File formats are divided into proprietary and open formats. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: File format)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.4%.
59 110


ABBYY FineReader is an optical character recognition (OCR) application developed by ABBYY. FineReader was designed as a professional-level application for converting scanned images, photographs of documents and PDF files into editable and searchable formats such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Powerpoint, Rich Text Format, HTML, PDF/A, searchable PDF, CSV and text files. ABBYY FineReader is in competition with Nuance OmniPage as well as free software for optical character recognition. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: FineReader)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 5


Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is an audio compression codec primarily authored by Josh Coalson. FLAC employs a lossless data compression algorithm. A digital audio recording compressed by FLAC can be decompressed into an identical copy of the original audio data. Audio sources encoded to FLAC are typically reduced to 50-60% of their original size. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: FLAC)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 2

flash video

Flash Video is a container file format used to deliver video over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player versions 6 ‐ 10. Flash Video content may also be embedded within SWF files. There are two different video file formats known as Flash Video: FLV and F4V. The audio and video data within FLV files are encoded in the same way as they are within SWF files. The latter F4V file format is based on the ISO base media file format and is supported starting with Flash Player 9 update 3. Both formats are supported in Adobe Flash Player and currently developed by Adobe Systems. FLV was originally developed by Macromedia. Flash Video has been accepted as the default online video format by many sites. Notable users of it include YouTube, Hulu, VEVO, Yahoo! Video, metacafe,, and many other news providers. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Flash Video)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
3 5


The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) is a federal freedom of information law that allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government. The Act defines agency records subject to disclosure, outlines mandatory disclosure procedures and grants nine exemptions to the statute. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 4, 1966 (Public Law 89-554, 80 Stat. 383; Amended 1996, 2002, 2007), and went into effect the following year. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Freedom of Information Act)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.9%.
16 49
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