Skip to Content

Overview of keyword tags

Syndicate content
Key image: copyright, used under license from shutterstock.com

This page provides an overview of 596 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Total articles Total usagesort icon Trending factor Charts

heritrix

Heritrix is the Internet Archive's web crawler, which was specially designed for web archiving. It is open-source and written in Java. The main interface is accessible using a web browser, and there is a command-line tool that can optionally be used to initiate crawls. Heritrix was developed jointly by Internet Archive and the Nordic national libraries on specifications written in early 2003. The first official release was in January 2004, and it has been continually improved by employees of the Internet Archive and other interested parties. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Heritrix)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 10

i18n

In computing, internationalization and localization (also spelled internationalisation and localisation, see spelling differences) are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target market. Internationalization is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes. Localization is the process of adapting internationalized software for a specific region or language by adding locale-specific components and translating text. The terms are frequently abbreviated to the numeronyms i18n (where 18 stands for the number of letters between the first i and last n in internationalization, a usage coined at DEC in the 1970s or 80s) and L10n respectively, due to the length of the words. The capital L in L10n helps to distinguish it from the lowercase i in i18n. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Internationalization and localization)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 10

learning design

Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically (process of teaching) and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: 1) analysis, 2) design, 3) development, 4) implementation, and 5) evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Instructional design)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
9 10

microblogging

Microblogging is a broadcast medium in the form of blogging. A microblog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregate file size. Microblogs "allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links". As with traditional blogging, microbloggers post about topics ranging from the simple, such as "what I'm doing right now," to the thematic, such as "sports cars." Commercial microblogs also exist, to promote websites, services and/or products, and to promote collaboration within an organization. Some microblogging services offer features such as privacy settings, which allow users to control who can read their microblogs, or alternative ways of publishing entries besides the web-based interface. These may include text messaging, instant messaging, E-mail, or digital audio. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Microblogging)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.4%.
7 10

mpeg-4

MPEG-4 is a collection of methods defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) under the formal standard ISO/IEC 14496 - Coding of audio-visual objects. Uses of MPEG-4 include compression of AV data for web (streaming media) and CD distribution, voice (telephone, videophone) and broadcast television applications. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: MPEG-4)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
3 10

named entity recognition

Named entity recognition (NER) (also known as entity identification and entity extraction) is a subtask of information extraction that seeks to locate and classify atomic elements in text into predefined categories such as the names of persons, organizations, locations, expressions of times, quantities, monetary values, percentages, etc. State-of-the-art NER systems for English produce near-human performance. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Named entity recognition)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
8 10

safari

Safari is a graphical web browser developed by Apple Inc. and included as part of the Mac OS X operating system. First released as a public beta on January 7, 2003 on the company's Mac OS X operating system, it became Apple's default browser beginning with Mac OS X v10.3 "Panther". Safari is also the native browser for iOS. A version of Safari for the Microsoft Windows operating system, first released on June 11, 2007, supports Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. The latest stable release of the browser is 5.0.5, which is available as a free download for both Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. As of 2011, Safari is the fourth most widely used browser in the US, following Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome, respectively. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Safari)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
9 10

saml

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an XML-based open standard for exchanging authentication and authorization data between security domains, that is, between an identity provider (a producer of assertions) and a service provider (a consumer of assertions). SAML is a product of the OASIS Security Services Technical Committee. The single most important problem that SAML is trying to solve is the Web Browser Single Sign-On (SSO) problem, a problem also addressed by the OpenID protocol. Single sign-on solutions are abundant at the intranet level (using cookies, for example) but extending these solutions beyond the intranet has been problematic and has led to the proliferation of non-interoperable proprietary technologies. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: SAML)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
5 10

xacml

XACML stands for eXtensible Access Control Markup Language. It is a declarative access control policy language implemented in XML and a processing model, describing how to interpret the policies. Latest version 2.0 was ratified by OASIS standards organization on February 1, 2005. The planned version 3.0 will add generic attribute categories for the evaluation context and policy delegation profile (administrative policy profile). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: XACML)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 10

character encoding

A character encoding system consists of a code that pairs each character from a given repertoire with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the transmission of data (generally numbers and / or text) through telecommunication networks or storage of text in computers. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Character encoding)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 11

local storage

What I will refer to as 'HTML5 Storage' is a specification named Web Storage, which was at one time part of the HTML5 specification proper, but was split out into its own specification for uninteresting political reasons. Certain browser vendors also refer to it as 'Local Storage' or 'DOM Storage.' Simply put, it's a way for web pages to store named key/value pairs locally, within the client web browser. Like cookies, this data persists even after you navigate away from the web site, close your browser tab, exit your browser, or what have you. Unlike cookies, this data is never transmitted to the remote web server (unless you go out of your way to send it manually). Unlike all previous attempts at providing persistent local storage, it is implemented natively in web browsers, so it is available even when third-party browser plugins are not. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
4 11

responsive design

Responsive Web Design (RWD) essentially indicates that a web site is crafted to use Cascading Style Sheets 3 media queries, an extension of the @media rule , with fluid proportion-based grids (which use percentages and EMs instead of pixels) , to adapt the layout to the viewing environment, and probably also use flexible images. As a result, users across a broad range of devices and browsers will have access to a single source of content, laid out so as to be easy to read and navigate with a minimum of resizing, panning, and scrolling. "Mobile First" and "Progressive Enhancement / Unobtrusive JavaScript" (strategies for when a new site design is being considered) are related concepts that predated RWD: browsers of basic mobile phones do not understand media queries or Javascript, and it is wise to create a basic web site then enhance it for smart phones and PCs — rather than attempt "graceful degradation" to try to degrade a complex, image-heavy site to work on the most basic mobile phones. Browser detection and mobile device detection are two ways of deducing if Javascript and certain HTML and CSS features are supported, however Javascript libraries like Modernizr, jQuery, and jQuery Mobile that directly test for features/user agents are also popular. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Responsive design)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
4 11 36.4

restful

Representational State Transfer (REST) is a style of software architecture for distributed hypermedia systems such as the World Wide Web. The term Representational State Transfer was introduced and defined in 2000 by Roy Fielding in his doctoral dissertation. Fielding is one of the principal authors of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) specification versions 1.0 and 1.1. Conforming to the REST constraints is referred to as being 'RESTful'. A RESTful web service (also called a RESTful web API) is a simple web service implemented using HTTP and the principles of REST. It is a collection of resources, with three defined aspects: 1) the base URI for the web service, such as http://example.com/resources/ ; 2) the Internet media type of the data supported by the web service. This is often JSON, XML or YAML but can be any other valid Internet media type; 3) the set of operations supported by the web service using HTTP methods (e.g., POST, GET, PUT or DELETE). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: RESTful web services)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
8 11

semiotic

Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or (in the Saussurean tradition) semiology, is the study of signs and sign processes (semiosis), indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication. Semiotics is closely related to the field of linguistics, which, for its part, studies the structure and meaning of language more specifically. Semiotics is often divided into three branches: 1) Semantics: Relation between signs and the things to which they refer; their denotata, or meaning. 2) Syntactics: Relations among signs in formal structures. 3) Pragmatics: Relation between signs and the effects they have on the people who use them. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Semiotics)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
5 11

ssh

Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged using a secure channel between two networked devices. The two major versions of the protocol are referred to as SSH1 or SSH-1 and SSH2 or SSH-2. Used primarily on Linux and Unix based systems to access shell accounts, SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and other insecure remote shells, which send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to packet analysis. The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: SSH)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
4 11

z39.88

OpenURL is a standardized format (Z39.88) of Uniform Resource Locator (URL) intended to enable Internet users to more easily find a copy of a resource that they are allowed to access. Although OpenURL can be used with any kind of resource on the Internet, it is most heavily used by libraries to help connect patrons to subscription content. The OpenURL standard is designed to enable linking from information resources such as abstracting and indexing databases (sources) to library services (targets), such as academic journals, whether online or in printed or other formats. The linking is mediated by "link resolvers", or "link-servers", which parse the elements of an OpenURL and provide links to appropriate targets available through a library by the use of an OpenURL knowledge base. The source that generates an OpenURL is typically a bibliographic citation or bibliographic record in a database that indexes the information resources often found in libraries, such as articles, books, patents, etc. Examples of such databases include Ovid, Web of Science, SciFinder, Modern Languages Association Bibliography and Google Scholar. A target is a resource or service that helps satisfy a user's information needs. Examples of targets include full-text repositories, online journals, online library catalogs and other Web resources and services. The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) has developed OpenURL and its data container (the ContextObject) as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z39.88. On 22 June 2006, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was named the maintenance agency for the standard. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: OpenUrl)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.4%.
7 11

avi

Audio Video Interleave (also Audio Video Interleaved), known by its acronym AVI, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows technology. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. Like the DVD video format, AVI files support multiple streaming audio and video, although these features are seldom used. Most AVI files also use the file format extensions developed by the Matrox OpenDML group in February 1996. These files are supported by Microsoft, and are unofficially called "AVI 2.0". (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: AVI)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
9 12

jena

Jena is an open source Semantic Web framework for Java. It provides an API to extract data from and write to RDF graphs. The graphs are represented as an abstract "model". A model can be sourced with data from files, databases, URLs or a combination of these. A Model can also be queried through SPARQL and updated through SPARUL. Jena is similar to Sesame; though, unlike Sesame, Jena provides support for OWL (Web Ontology Language). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Jena)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
5 12

medical subject headings

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH can be browsed and downloaded free of charge on the Internet through PubMed. The yearly printed version was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. Originally in English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different languages. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH))

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.6%.
11 12

openoffice

OpenOffice.org, commonly known as OOo or OpenOffice, is an open-source application suite whose main components are for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, and databases. It is available for a number of different computer operating systems, is distributed as free software and is written using its own GUI toolkit. It supports the ISO/IEC standard OpenDocument Format (ODF) for data interchange as its default file format, as well as Microsoft Office formats among others. As of November 2009, OpenOffice.org supports over 110 languages. As free software, users are free to download, modify, use and distribute OpenOffice.org. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: OpenOffice)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.5%.
9 12
CSVXML
Syndicate content


by Dr. Radut