Overview of keyword tags

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This page provides an overview of 617 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Charts

oer

Open educational resources (OER) are "digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research." Being a production and dissemination mode, OER are not involved in awarding degrees nor in providing academic or administrative support to students. However, OER materials are beginning to get integrated into open and distance education. Some OER producers have involved themselves in social media to increase their content visibility and reputation. OER include different kinds of digital assets. Learning content includes courses, course materials, content modules, learning objects, collections, and journals. Tools include software that supports the creation, delivery, use and improvement of open learning content, searching and organization of content, content and learning management systems, content development tools, and on-line learning communities. Implementation resources include intellectual property licenses that govern open publishing of materials, design-principles, and localization of content. They also include materials on best practices such as stories, publication, techniques, methods, processes, incentives, and distribution. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_educational_resources">Wikipedia article: Open Educational Resources</a>)

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ogg

Ogg is a free, open standard container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The creators of the Ogg format state that it is unrestricted by software patents and is designed to provide for efficient streaming and manipulation of high quality digital multimedia. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogg">Wikipedia article: Ogg</a>)

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ogg theora

Theora is a free lossy video compression format. It is developed by the Xiph.Org Foundation and distributed without licensing fees alongside their other free and open media projects, including the Vorbis audio format and the Ogg container. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theora">Wikipedia article: Theora</a>)

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onix

ONIX (ONline Information eXchange) currently refers to any of three XML formats for use primarily within the book trade. ONIX was originally a single standard for capturing bibliographic data relating to books. That standard is now referred to as ONIX for Books and has been expanded to include better support for eBooks. A second ONIX standard, ONIX for Serials has been added to capture metadata pertaining to serialised publications. There is also a third standard, ONIX for Publications Licenses (ONIX-PL), designed to handle the licenses under which libraries and other institutions use digital resources. According to EDItEUR, one of the principal organisations behind the creation of the ONIX standards, ONIX is: "an XML-based family of international standards intended to support computer-to-computer communication between parties involved in creating, distributing, licensing or otherwise making available intellectual property in published form, whether physical or digital. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onix_(publishing_protocol)">Wikipedia article: Onix</a>)

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onix-pl

ONIX for Publications Licenses (ONIX-PL) is a family of standard XML messaging protocols for exchanging licensing information that builds on the work of the Digital Libraries Federation Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) and NISO's License Expression Working Group (LEWG). (Excerpt from <a href="http://www.niso.org/workrooms/onixpl">this source</a>)

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ontologies

In computer science and information science, an ontology is a formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the entities within that domain, and may be used to describe the domain. Its meaning is vastly different from the word Ontology in philosophy. In theory, an ontology is a "formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation". An ontology provides a shared vocabulary, which can be used to model a domain - that is, the type of objects and/or concepts that exist, and their properties and relations. Ontologies are the structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, systems engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, enterprise bookmarking, and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology_(information_science)">Wikipedia article: Ontology</a>)

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opac

An Online Public Access Catalog (often abbreviated as OPAC or simply Library Catalog) is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Users search a library catalog principally to locate books and other material physically located at a library. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_public_access_catalog">Wikipedia article: OPAC</a>)

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open access

Open access (OA) refers to unrestricted online access to articles published in scholarly journals, and increasingly also book chapters or monographs. Open Access comes in two forms, Gratis versus Libre: Gratis OA is no-cost online access, while Libre OA offers some additional usage rights. Open content is similar to OA, but usually includes the right to modify the work, whereas in scholarly publishing it is usual to keep an article's content intact and to associate it with a fixed author. Creative Commons licenses can be used to specify usage rights. The Open Access idea can be extended to the learning objects and resources provided in e-learning. OA can be provided in two ways: 1) "Green OA" is provided by authors publishing in any journal and then self-archiving their postprints in their institutional repository or on some other OA website. Green OA journal publishers endorse immediate OA self-archiving by their authors. 2) "Gold OA" is provided by authors publishing in an open access journal that provides immediate OA to all of its articles on the publisher's website. (Hybrid open access journals provide Gold OA only for those individual articles for which their authors (or their author's institution or funder) pay an OA publishing fee.) (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access_(publishing)">Wikipedia article: Open access publishing</a>)

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open archives initiative

The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an attempt to build a "low-barrier interoperability framework" for archives (institutional repositories) containing digital content (digital libraries). It allows people (Service Providers) to harvest metadata (from Data Providers). This metadata is used to provide "value-added services", often by combining different data sets. Initially, the initiative has been involved in the development of a technological framework and interoperability standards specifically for enhancing access to e-print archives, in order to increase the availability of scholarly communication; OAI is, therefore, closely related to the Open access publishing movement. However, the developed technology and standards are applicable in a much broader domain than scholarly publishing alone. The OAI technical infrastructure, specified in the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH), currently in version 2.0, defines a mechanism for data providers to expose their metadata. This protocol mandates that individual archives map their metadata to the Dublin Core, a simple and common metadata set for this purpose. In other words, the relation of OAI compatibility to Dublin Core is that OAI standards allow a common way to provide content, and part of those standards is that the content has metadata that describes the items in Dublin Core format. OAI has recently begun work on the Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) project which defines standards for the description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Archives_Initiative">Wikipedia article: Open Archives Initiative</a>)

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open data

Open data is a philosophy and practice requiring that certain data be freely available to everyone, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. It has a similar ethos to a number of other "Open" movements and communities such as open source and open access. However these are not logically linked and many combinations of practice are found. The practice and ideology itself is well established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science) but the term "open data" itself is recent. Much of the emphasis in this entry is on data from scientific research and from the data-driven web. In some cases open data may be considered as more properly Open Metadata and there is not yet a consistent formalisation. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_science_data">Wikipedia article: Open data</a>)

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open document

The Open Document Format for Office Applications (also known as OpenDocument or ODF) is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. While the specifications were originally developed by Sun Microsystems, the standard was developed by the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC - OASIS ODF TC, committee of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium and based on the XML format originally created and implemented by the OpenOffice.org office suite (see OpenOffice.org XML). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument">Wikipedia article: OpenDocument presentation</a>)

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open education

Open education is a collective term to describe institutional practices and programmatic initiatives that broaden access to the learning and training traditionally offered through formal education systems. The qualifier 'open' of open education refers to the elimination of barriers that can preclude both opportunities and recognition for participation in institution-based learning. One aspect of openness in or 'opening up' education is the development and adoption of open educational resources. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_education">Wikipedia article: Open Education</a>)

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open source

The term open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials. Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology. Before the term open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code. Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. Subsequently, the new phrase "open-source software" was born to describe the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_source">Wikipedia article: Open source</a>)

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open standard

An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process). There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage. The terms "open" and "standard" have a wide range of meanings associated with their usage. There are a number of definitions of open standards which emphasize different aspects of openness, including of the resulting specification, the openness of the drafting process, and the ownership of rights in the standard. The term "standard" is sometimes restricted to technologies approved by formalized committees that are open to participation by all interested parties and operate on a consensus basis. The definitions of the term "open standard" used by academics, the European Union and some of its member governments or parliaments such as Denmark, France, and Spain preclude open standards requiring fees for use, as do the New Zealand, South African and the Venezuelan governments. On the standard organisation side, the W3C ensures that its specifications can be implemented on a Royalty-Free (RF) basis. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_standard">Wikipedia article: Open standard</a>)

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opendocument

The Open Document Format for Office Applications (also known as OpenDocument or ODF) is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. While the specifications were originally developed by Sun Microsystems, the standard was developed by the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC - OASIS ODF TC, committee of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium and based on the XML format originally created and implemented by the OpenOffice.org office suite (see OpenOffice.org XML). (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenDocument">Wikipedia article: OpenDocument presentation</a>)

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openid

OpenID is an open standard that describes how users can be authenticated in a decentralized manner, obviating the need for services to provide their own ad hoc systems and allowing users to consolidate their digital identities. The OpenID protocol does not rely on a central authority to authenticate a user's identity. Moreover, neither services nor the OpenID standard may mandate a specific means by which to authenticate users, allowing for approaches ranging from the common (such as passwords) to the novel (such as smart cards or biometrics). The term OpenID may also refer to an ID as specified in the OpenID standard; these IDs take the form of a unique URL, and are managed by some 'OpenID provider' that handles authentication. OpenID authentication is now used and provided by several large websites. Providers include AOL, BBC, Google, IBM, MySpace, Orange, PayPal, VeriSign, LiveJournal, and Yahoo! (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenID">Wikipedia article: OpenID</a>)

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openoffice

OpenOffice.org, commonly known as OOo or OpenOffice, is an open-source application suite whose main components are for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, and databases. It is available for a number of different computer operating systems, is distributed as free software and is written using its own GUI toolkit. It supports the ISO/IEC standard OpenDocument Format (ODF) for data interchange as its default file format, as well as Microsoft Office formats among others. As of November 2009, OpenOffice.org supports over 110 languages. As free software, users are free to download, modify, use and distribute OpenOffice.org. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenOffice.org">Wikipedia article: OpenOffice</a>)

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openurl

OpenURL is a standardized format (Z39.88) of Uniform Resource Locator (URL) intended to enable Internet users to more easily find a copy of a resource that they are allowed to access. Although OpenURL can be used with any kind of resource on the Internet, it is most heavily used by libraries to help connect patrons to subscription content. The OpenURL standard is designed to enable linking from information resources such as abstracting and indexing databases (sources) to library services (targets), such as academic journals, whether online or in printed or other formats. The linking is mediated by "link resolvers", or "link-servers", which parse the elements of an OpenURL and provide links to appropriate targets available through a library by the use of an OpenURL knowledge base. The source that generates an OpenURL is typically a bibliographic citation or bibliographic record in a database that indexes the information resources often found in libraries, such as articles, books, patents, etc. Examples of such databases include Ovid, Web of Science, SciFinder, Modern Languages Association Bibliography and Google Scholar. A target is a resource or service that helps satisfy a user's information needs. Examples of targets include full-text repositories, online journals, online library catalogs and other Web resources and services. The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) has developed OpenURL and its data container (the ContextObject) as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z39.88. On 22 June 2006, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was named the maintenance agency for the standard. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenURL">Wikipedia article: OpenUrl</a>)

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opera

Opera is a web browser and Internet suite developed by Opera Software. The browser handles common Internet-related tasks such as displaying web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, chatting on IRC, downloading files via BitTorrent, and reading web feeds. Opera is offered free of charge for personal computers and mobile phones. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opera_(web_browser)">Wikipedia article: Opera web browser</a>)

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operating system

An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers, manages computer hardware resources, and provides common services for execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer - from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems for personal computers are: Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Unix. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system">Wikipedia article: Operating system</a>)

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