Skip to Content

Overview of keyword tags

Syndicate content
Key image: copyright, used under license from

This page provides an overview of 596 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Total articlessort icon Total usage Trending factor Charts


The Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) is an exercise undertaken approximately every 5 years on behalf of the four UK higher education funding councils (HEFCE, SHEFC, HEFCW, DELNI) to evaluate the quality of research undertaken by British higher education institutions. RAE submissions from each subject area (or unit of assessment) are given a rank by a subject specialist peer review panel. The rankings are used to inform the allocation of quality weighted research funding (QR) each higher education institution receives from their national funding council. Previous RAEs took place in 1986, 1989, 1992, 1996 and 2001. The most recent results were published in December 2008. Various media have produced league tables of institutions and disciplines based on the 2008 RAE results. Different methodologies lead to similar but non-identical rankings. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Research Assessment Exercise)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.8%.
49 158 0.6


In telecommunications, wireless communication may be used to transfer information over short distances (a few meters as in television remote control) or long distances (thousands or millions of kilometers for radio communications). The term is often shortened to "wireless". It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Wireless)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.8%.
49 87 56

collection description

The description of collections is important in the context of network library services and an important underpinning for developing a collective resource. The creation of collection descriptions allows the owners or curators of collections to disclose information about their existence and availability to interested parties. Although collection descriptions may take the form of unstructured textual documents (for example a set of Web pages describing a collection), there are significant advantages in describing collections using structured, open and standardised formats. Such descriptions would enable: users to discover and locate collections of interest; users to perform searches across multiple collections in a controlled way; software to perform such tasks on behalf of users, based on known user preferences. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.9%.
50 215


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: CSS)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.9%.
51 115


Adobe Flash (formerly SmartSketch FutureSplash, FutureSplash Animator and Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform used to add animation, video, and interactivity to web pages. Flash is frequently used for advertisements and games. More recently, it has been positioned as a tool for "Rich Internet Applications" ("RIAs"). Flash manipulates vector and raster graphics to provide animation of text, drawings, and still images. It supports bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it can capture user input via mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera. Flash contains an object-oriented language called ActionScript. Flash content may be displayed on various computer systems and devices, using Adobe Flash Player, which is available free of charge for common web browsers, some mobile phones and a few other electronic devices (using Flash Lite). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Adobe Flash)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.9%.
51 99

digital media

Digital media is a form of electronic media where data is stored in digital (as opposed to analog) form. It can refer to the technical aspect of storage and transmission (e.g. hard disk drives or computer networking) of information or to the "end product", such as digital video, augmented reality or digital art. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Digital media)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3%.
52 64

social networks

A social network is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) called "nodes", which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships, or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of network theory consisting of nodes and ties (also called edges, links, or connections). Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are the relationships between the actors. The resulting graph-based structures are often very complex. There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes. Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Social network)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3%.
52 103


The Gopher protocol is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet. Strongly oriented towards a menu-document design, the Gopher protocol was a predecessor of (and later, an alternative to) the World Wide Web. The protocol offers some features not natively supported by the Web and imposes a much stronger hierarchy on information stored on it. Its text menu interface is well-suited to computing environments that rely heavily on remote text-oriented computer terminals, which were still common at the time of its creation in 1991, and the simplicity of its protocol facilitated a wide variety of client implementations. Although largely supplanted by the Web in the years following, the Gopher protocol is still in use by enthusiasts, and a small population of actively-maintained servers remains. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Gopher protocol)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3%.
53 119

application profile

In computer science, an application profile is a set of metadata elements, policies, and guidelines defined for a particular application. The elements may be from one or more element sets, thus allowing a given application to meet its functional requirements by using metadata from several element sets including locally defined sets. For example, a given application might choose a subset of the Dublin Core that meets its needs, or may include elements from the Dublin Core, another element set, and several locally defined elements, all combined in a single schema. An application profile is not complete without documentation that defines the policies and best practices appropriate to the application. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Application profile)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.1%.
54 478

controlled vocabularies

Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings, thesauri and taxonomies. Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, authorised terms that have been preselected by the designer of the vocabulary, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, where there is no restriction on the vocabulary. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Controlled vocabularies)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.1%.
54 121


The term e-Research (alternately spelled eResearch) refers to the use of information technology to support existing and new forms of research. E-research extends e-Science and cyberinfrastructure to other disciplines, including the humanities and social sciences. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: E-research)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.1%.
54 290 0.3


OpenURL is a standardized format (Z39.88) of Uniform Resource Locator (URL) intended to enable Internet users to more easily find a copy of a resource that they are allowed to access. Although OpenURL can be used with any kind of resource on the Internet, it is most heavily used by libraries to help connect patrons to subscription content. The OpenURL standard is designed to enable linking from information resources such as abstracting and indexing databases (sources) to library services (targets), such as academic journals, whether online or in printed or other formats. The linking is mediated by "link resolvers", or "link-servers", which parse the elements of an OpenURL and provide links to appropriate targets available through a library by the use of an OpenURL knowledge base. The source that generates an OpenURL is typically a bibliographic citation or bibliographic record in a database that indexes the information resources often found in libraries, such as articles, books, patents, etc. Examples of such databases include Ovid, Web of Science, SciFinder, Modern Languages Association Bibliography and Google Scholar. A target is a resource or service that helps satisfy a user's information needs. Examples of targets include full-text repositories, online journals, online library catalogs and other Web resources and services. The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) has developed OpenURL and its data container (the ContextObject) as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z39.88. On 22 June 2006, the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was named the maintenance agency for the standard. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: OpenUrl)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.1%.
54 549


A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication. The word replaced webcast in common vernacular due to the fame of the iPod and its role in the rising popularity and innovation of web feeds. The mode of delivery differentiates podcasting from other means of accessing media files over the Internet, such as direct download, or streamed webcasting. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Podcast)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.1%.
54 146 0.7


Mailbase was the UK's major electronic mailing list service for HE staff. It enables groups of academics, researchers and support staff to communicate and collaborate using Mailbase lists. Groups use Mailbase for: informal discussion; advertising vacant posts; queries and enquiries; co-authoring papers; distributing research material and data; advertising conferences and seminars; locating colleagues with a similar specialist interest; electronic meetings. Mailbase was run by a team based in the Computing Service at the University of Newcastle and is funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the Higher Education Funding Councils of England, Scotland and Wales and the Department of Education for Northern Ireland. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.2%.
55 187


The Standard Generalized Markup Language (ISO 8879:1986 SGML) is an ISO-standard technology for defining generalized markup languages for documents. ISO 8879 Annex A.1 defines generalized markup: Generalized markup is based on two novel postulates: 1) Markup should describe a document's structure and other attributes, rather than specify the processing to be performed on it, as descriptive markup needs to be done only once, and will suffice for future processing. 2) Markup should be rigorous so that the techniques available for processing rigorously-defined objects like programs and databases can be used for processing documents as well. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: SGML)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.2%.
56 270

creative commons

Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization headquartered in San Francisco, California, United States devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to the public. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy to understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. This simplicity distinguishes Creative Commons from an all-rights reserved copyright. Creative Commons was invented to create a more flexible copyright model, replacing "all rights reserved" with "some rights reserved". Wikipedia is one of the notable web-based projects using one of its licenses. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Creative Commons)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.3%.
58 196 2

file format

A file format is a particular way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. Since a disk drive, or indeed any computer storage, can store only bits, the computer must have some way of converting information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. There are different kinds of formats for different kinds of information. Within any format type, e.g., word processor documents, there will typically be several different formats. Sometimes these formats compete with each other. File formats are divided into proprietary and open formats. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: File format)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.4%.
59 110


YouTube is a video-sharing website on which users can upload, share, and view videos, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005. YouTube is a video-sharing website on which users can upload, share, and view videos, created by three former PayPal employees in February 2005. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: YouTube)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.4%.
59 121 3.4

cloud computing

Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. In the traditional model of computing, both data and software are fully contained on the user's computer; in cloud computing, the user's computer may contain almost no software or data (perhaps a minimal operating system and web browser only), serving as little more than a display terminal for processes occurring on a network of computers far away. A common shorthand for a provider's cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud". (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Cloud computing)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.6%.
62 171 426.60

geospatial data

A geographic information system (GIS), geographical information system, or geospatial information system is a system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages and presents data with reference to geographic location data. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis and database technology. GIS may be used in archaeology, geography, cartography, remote sensing, land surveying, public utility management, natural resource management, precision agriculture, photogrammetry, urban planning, emergency management, landscape architecture, navigation, aerial video and localized search engines. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Geographic information system)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.6%.
62 138 0.7
Syndicate content

by Dr. Radut