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This page provides an overview of 595 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Total articlessort icon Total usage Trending factor Charts


The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a bitmap image format that was introduced by CompuServe in 1987 and has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: GIF)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.6%.
62 118


A digital object identifier (DOI) is a character string used to uniquely identify an electronic document or other object. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location, such as a URL, where the object can be found. The DOI for a document is permanent, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply referring to it by its URL, because if its URL changes, the publisher need only update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. However, unlike URLs, the DOI system is not open to all comers; only organizations that can meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and that are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs. The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the International DOI Foundation, which developed and controls the system. The DOI system has been developed and implemented in a range of publishing applications since 2000; by late 2009 approximately 43 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: DOI)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.6%.
63 326 276


Flickr is an image hosting and video hosting website, web services suite, and online community created by Ludicorp and later acquired by Yahoo!. In addition to being a popular website for users to share and embed personal photographs, the service is widely used by bloggers to host images that they embed in blogs and social media. In September 2010, it reported that it was hosting more than 5 billion images. For mobile users, Flickr has an official app for iPhone, BlackBerry and for Windows Phone 7, but not for other mobile devices. Several third party apps offer alternatives such as flickr hd for the iPad. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Flickr)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.7%.
65 164 0.6

fedora commons

Fedora (or Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture) is a modular architecture built on the principle that interoperability and extensibility is best achieved by the integration of data, interfaces, and mechanisms (i.e., executable programs) as clearly defined modules. Fedora is a digital asset management (DAM) architecture, upon which many types of digital library, institutional repositories, digital archives, and digital libraries systems might be built. Fedora is the underlying architecture for a digital repository, and is not a complete management, indexing, discovery, and delivery application. The Fedora software is available under the terms of the Apache License. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Fedora Commons)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.8%.
66 491 1.8

knowledge management

Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embedded in organizational processes or practice. Knowledge Management efforts typically focus on organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuous improvement of the organization. KM efforts overlap with organizational learning, and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of knowledge as a strategic asset and a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Knowledge management)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 3.8%.
67 141

learning objects

A learning object is "a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective". The term is credited to Wayne Hogins when he created a working group in 1994 bearing the name though the concept was first described by Gerard in 1967. Learning objects go by many names, including content objects, chunks, educational objects, information objects, intelligent objects, knowledge bits, knowledge objects, learning components, media objects, reusable curriculum components, nuggets, reusable information objects, reusable learning objects, testable reusable units of cognition, training components, and units of learning. Learning objects offer a new conceptualization of the learning process: rather than the traditional "several hour chunk", they provide smaller, self-contained, re-usable units of learning. They will typically have a number of different components, which range from descriptive data to information about rights and educational level. At their core, however, will be instructional content, practice, and assessment. A key issue is the use of metadata. Learning object design raises issues of portability, and of the object's relation to a broader learning management system. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Learning Objects)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4%.
69 199 4.5


In computer science and information science, an ontology is a formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts. It is used to reason about the entities within that domain, and may be used to describe the domain. Its meaning is vastly different from the word Ontology in philosophy. In theory, an ontology is a "formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation". An ontology provides a shared vocabulary, which can be used to model a domain - that is, the type of objects and/or concepts that exist, and their properties and relations. Ontologies are the structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, systems engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, enterprise bookmarking, and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Ontology)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4%.
69 230 6.8


A virtual learning environment (VLE) is a system designed to support teaching and learning in an educational setting, as distinct from a Managed Learning Environment (MLE), where the focus is on management.A VLE will normally work over the Internet and provide a collection of tools such as those for assessment (particularly of types that can be marked automatically, such as multiple choice), communication, uploading of content, return of students' work, peer assessment, administration of student groups, collecting and organizing student grades, questionnaires, tracking tools, etc. New features in these systems include wikis, blogs, RSS and 3D virtual learning spaces. VLEs are often used in schools and other educational establishments in order to make the learning experience more interactive. While originally created for distance education, VLEs are now most often used to supplement traditional face to face classroom activities, commonly known as Blended Learning. These systems usually run on servers, to serve the course to students Multimedia and/or web pages. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Virtual learning environment)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4%.
69 259 13.8

resource description

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax formats. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: RDF)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4%.
70 60 1.7


In computing, a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource on the Internet. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network (typically the World Wide Web) using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: URI)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4%.
70 340 29


Facebook (stylized facebook) is a social networking service and website launched in February 2004, operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. As of January 2011, Facebook has more than 600 million active users. Users may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Additionally, users may join common interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics. The name of the service stems from the colloquial name for the book given to students at the start of the academic year by university administrations in the United States to help students get to know each other better. Facebook allows anyone who declares themselves to be at least 13 years old to become a registered user of the website. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Facebook)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.1%.
71 200 60.5


In computer engineering, a cache is a component that transparently stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster. The data that is stored within a cache might be values that have been computed earlier or duplicates of original values that are stored elsewhere. If requested data is contained in the cache (cache hit), this request can be served by simply reading the cache, which is comparatively faster. Otherwise (cache miss), the data has to be recomputed or fetched from its original storage location, which is comparatively slower. Hence, the more requests can be served from the cache the faster the overall system performance is. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Cache)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.1%.
72 411 41.6


Linux refers to the family of Unix-like computer operating systems using the Linux kernel. Linux can be installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from mobile phones, tablet computers and video game consoles, to mainframes and supercomputers. Linux is a leading server operating system, and runs the 10 fastest supercomputers in the world. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Linux)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.2%.
73 209


Adobe Acrobat is a family of application software developed by Adobe Systems to view, create, manipulate, print and manage files in Portable Document Format (PDF). All members of the family, except Adobe Reader (formerly Acrobat Reader), are commercial software; Adobe Reader however, is available as freeware and can be downloaded from Adobe's web site. Adobe Reader enables users to view and print PDF files but has negligible PDF creation capabilities. Acrobat and Reader are widely used as a way to present information with a fixed layout similar to a paper publication. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Adobe Acrobat)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.3%.
74 163 2.4

information society

An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. The aim of the information society is to gain competitive advantage internationally, through using information technology (IT) in a creative and productive way. The knowledge economy is its economic counterpart, whereby wealth is created through the economic exploitation of understanding. People who have the means to partake in this form of society are sometimes called digital citizens. This is one of many dozen labels that have been identified to suggest that humans are entering a new phase of society. The markers of this rapid change may be technological, economic, occupational, spatial, cultural, or some combination of all of these. Information society is seen as the successor to industrial society. Closely related concepts are the post-industrial society (Daniel Bell), post-fordism, post-modern society, knowledge society, telematic society, Information Revolution, liquid modernity, and network society (Manuel Castells). (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Information society)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.3%.
74 137 59.4

library management systems

An integrated library system (ILS), also known as a library management system (LMS), is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed. An ILS usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials); cataloging (classifying and indexing materials); circulation (lending materials to patrons and receiving them back); serials (tracking magazine and newspaper holdings); the OPAC (public interface for users). Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Library management system)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.3%.
75 244 180.59


A geographic information system (GIS), geographical information system, or geospatial information system is a system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages and presents data with reference to geographic location data. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis and database technology. GIS may be used in archaeology, geography, cartography, remote sensing, land surveying, public utility management, natural resource management, precision agriculture, photogrammetry, urban planning, emergency management, landscape architecture, navigation, aerial video and localized search engines. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Geographic information system)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.4%.
76 70


Provenance, from the French provenir, "to come from", means the origin, or the source of something, or the history of the ownership or location of an object. The term was originally mostly used for works of art, but is now used in similar senses in a wide range of fields, including science and computing. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Provenance)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.4%.
76 138


The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as Apache, is web server software notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. In 2009 it became the first web server software to surpass the 100 million website milestone. Apache was the first viable alternative to the Netscape Communications Corporation web server (currently known as Oracle iPlanet Web Server), and has since evolved to rival other web servers in terms of functionality and performance. Typically Apache is run on a Unix-like operating system. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Apache HTTP Server)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.4%.
77 487 9.8


E-Science (or eScience) is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid. The term was created by John Taylor, the Director General of the United Kingdom's Office of Science and Technology in 1999 and was used to describe a large funding initiative starting in November 2000. Examples of the kind of science include social simulations, particle physics, earth sciences and bio-informatics. Particle physics has a well developed e-Science infrastructure in particular because of its need for adequate computing facilities for the analysis of results and storage of data originating from the CERN Large Hadron Collider, which started taking data in 2009. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: E-Science)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.4%.
77 217 1.8
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