Overview of keyword tags

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This page provides an overview of 617 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Charts

vcard

vCard is a file format standard for electronic business cards. vCards are often attached to e-mail messages, but can be exchanged in other ways, such as on the World Wide Web or Instant Messaging. They can contain name and address information, phone numbers, e-mail addresses, URLs, logos, photographs, and even audio clips. Versitcard was originally proposed in 1995 by the Versit Consortium, which consisted of Apple, AT&T Technologies (later Lucent), IBM and Siemens. In December 1996, ownership of the format was handed over to the Internet Mail Consortium, a trade association for companies with an interest in Internet e-mail. Version 2.1 of the vCard standard is widely supported by e-mail clients. Version 3.0 of the vCard format is an IETF standards-track proposal contained in RFC 2425 and RFC 2426. The vCardDAV working group of the IETF is updating the vCard format. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VCard">Wikipedia article: vCard</a>)

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vector graphics

Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygon(s), which are all based on mathematical equations, to represent images in computer graphics. Vector graphics formats are complementary to raster graphics, which is the representation of images as an array of pixels, as is typically used for the representation of photographic images. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_graphics">Wikipedia article: Vector graphics</a>)

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video

The term video commonly refers to several storage formats for moving pictures: digital video formats, including Blu-ray Disc, DVD, QuickTime, and MPEG-4; and analog videotapes, including VHS and Betamax. Video can be recorded and transmitted in various physical media: in magnetic tape when recorded as PAL or NTSC electric signals by video cameras, or in MPEG-4 or DV digital media when recorded by digital cameras. Quality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used. Digital television (DTV) is a relatively recent format with higher quality than earlier television formats and has become a standard for television video. 3D-video, digital video in three dimensions, premiered at the end of 20th century. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video#Description_of_video">Wikipedia article: Video</a>)

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video codec

A video codec is a device or software that enables video compression and/or decompression for digital video. The compression usually employs lossy data compression. Historically, video was stored as an analog signal on magnetic tape. Around the time when the compact disc entered the market as a digital-format replacement for analog audio, it became feasible to also begin storing and using video in digital form, and a variety of such technologies began to emerge. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_codec">Wikipedia article: Video codec</a>)

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video encoding

A video codec is a device or software that enables video compression and/or decompression for digital video. The compression usually employs lossy data compression. Historically, video was stored as an analog signal on magnetic tape. Around the time when the compact disc entered the market as a digital-format replacement for analog audio, it became feasible to also begin storing and using video in digital form, and a variety of such technologies began to emerge. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_codec">Wikipedia article: Video codec</a>)

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videoconferencing

A videoconference or video conference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware. Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that it's designed to serve a conference rather than individuals. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Videoconferencing">Wikipedia article: Videoconferencing</a>)

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vim

Effective metadata adds value to information and enriches it by increasing accessibility, enhancing understanding, clarifying description, and consolidating context. Metadata can be simple or complex depending on the function it is fulfilling and the nature of the data it is supporting. Without it, the information user's ability to assess search results and select the most relevant is impaired. Hence the quality of the metadata created is pivotal to the impact and usefulness of the data collection it underpins. With the growth in the creation of information, there is an increasing need for quality metadata generation to keep pace. However, manually creating this metadata is expensive. This project aims to better understand the information search and retrieval needs of higher education so as to identify opportunities to increase the efficacy of metadata, and to improve efficiency of metadata generation processes in national and local services. Essentially it will investigate the trade-offs between "value to user" and "cost of creation" in order to establish the optimum point for value for money in metadata generation. In so doing this project will make more cost effective the delivery of scholarly resources for research and learning. Intute is uniquely placed to undertake this work because of the information held on the time and cost of manual metadata generation, the existence of the current Intute database of Internet resources for benchmarking purposes, and its unrivalled expertise in metadata creation and use. The outcomes of this project will be of enormous benefit to and stimulate change in the JISC community. Project start date: 2009-04-01. Project end date: 2010-09-01. (Excerpt from <a href="https://pims.jisc.ac.uk/projects/view/1249">this source</a>)

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virtual research environment

A virtual research environment (VREs) or virtual laboratory is an online system helping researchers collaborate. Features usually include collaboration support (forums and wikis), document hosting, and some discipline-specific tools, such as data analysis, visualisation, or simulation management. In some instances, publication management, and teaching tools such as presentations and slides may be included. VREs have become important in fields where research is primarily carried out in teams which span institutions and even countries: the ability to easily share information and research results is valuable. The concept of the VRE was studied by UK funding agency JISC in 2010 which highlighted issues such as researcher involvement in VRE design, sustainability, and consideration of the project as primarily one of community building rather than technology. The report also noted synonyms such as "collaborative e-research community", "collaboratory" and "virtual research community". JISC funded development of a number of VREs under its "Virtual research environment programme" from 2004 to 2011. In Australia, e-Research body NeCTAR has funding for a "virtual laboratory" program to be allocated in 2011. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_research_environment">Wikipedia article: Virtual research environment</a>)

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visualisation

Data visualization is the study of the visual representation of data, meaning "information which has been abstracted in some schematic form, including attributes or variables for the units of information". Data visualization is closely related to Information graphics, Information visualization, Scientific visualization and Statistical graphics. In the new millennium data visualization has become active area of research, teaching and development. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_visualization">Wikipedia article: Data visualization</a>)

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vle

A virtual learning environment (VLE) is a system designed to support teaching and learning in an educational setting, as distinct from a Managed Learning Environment (MLE), where the focus is on management.A VLE will normally work over the Internet and provide a collection of tools such as those for assessment (particularly of types that can be marked automatically, such as multiple choice), communication, uploading of content, return of students' work, peer assessment, administration of student groups, collecting and organizing student grades, questionnaires, tracking tools, etc. New features in these systems include wikis, blogs, RSS and 3D virtual learning spaces. VLEs are often used in schools and other educational establishments in order to make the learning experience more interactive. While originally created for distance education, VLEs are now most often used to supplement traditional face to face classroom activities, commonly known as Blended Learning. These systems usually run on servers, to serve the course to students Multimedia and/or web pages. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_learning_environment">Wikipedia article: Virtual learning environment</a>)

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vml

Vector Markup Language (VML) is a deprecated XML language used to produce vector graphics. VML was submitted as a proposed standard to the W3C in 1998 by Autodesk, Hewlett-Packard, Macromedia, Microsoft, and Visio. Around the same time other competing W3C submissions were received in the area of web vector graphics, such as PGML from Adobe Systems, Sun Microsystems, and others. As a result of these submissions, a new W3C working group was created, which produced Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). SVG became a W3C Recommendation in 2001 as a language for describing two-dimensional vector and mixed vector/raster graphics in XML. VML has been largely deprecated in favor of other formats, such as SVG. SVG is not compatible with VML. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_Markup_Language">Wikipedia article: VML</a>)

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vocabularies

Controlled vocabularies provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings, thesauri and taxonomies. Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, authorised terms that have been preselected by the designer of the vocabulary, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, where there is no restriction on the vocabulary. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_vocabulary">Wikipedia article: Controlled vocabularies</a>)

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vra

The Visual Resources Association (also known as VRA) is an international organization for image media professionals, VRA was founded in 1982 by slide librarians (visual resources curators) who were members of the College Art Association (CAA), the South Eastern Art Conference (SECAC), the Art Libraries Society of North America (ARLIS/NA), and the Mid-America College Art Association (MACAA). The association is concerned with creating, describing, and distributing digital images and other media; educating image professionals; and developing standards. The Visual Resources Association Foundation, a 501 C-3 organization created by the VRA, supports research and education in visual resources, and provides educational, literary, and scientific outreach to the archival and library community and the general public. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Resources_Association">Wikipedia article: VRA</a>)

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vra core

Since the 1980s, Visual Resources Association has worked on creating standards to describe images. To replace the earlier widely varying practices, the association created a common standard, the VRA Core Categories. Somewhat based on the Dublin Core model, the Core has grown from a list of elements describing art and architectural images to a data standard (with an XML schema to promote the sharing of records) for describing images. The first version was published in 1996, with revisions in 1998, 2002, 2004, and 2007 (resulting in the current version, 4.0.). In November 2010, the Network Development and MARC Standards Office of the Library of Congress began hosting VRA Core 4 in partnership with the VRA. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Resources_Association#VRA_Core_Categ... article: VRA Core</a>)

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vt100

VT100 is a video terminal that was made by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Its detailed attributes became the de facto standard for terminal emulators. It was introduced in August 1978, following its predecessor, the VT52, and communicated with its host system over serial lines using the ASCII character set and control sequences (a.k.a. escape sequences) standardized by ANSI. The VT100 was also the first Digital mass-market terminal to incorporate "graphic renditions" (blinking, bolding, reverse video, and underlining) as well as a selectable 80 or 132 column display. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VT100">Wikipedia article: VT100</a>)

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vufind

VuFind is an open source library search engine that allows users to search and browse beyond the resources of a traditional OPAC. Developed by Villanova University, version 1.0 was released in July 2010 after two years in beta. VuFind operates with a simple, Google-like interface and offers flexible keyword searching. While most commonly used for searching catalog records, VuFind can be extended to search other library resources including but not limited to: locally cached journals, digital library items, and institutional repository and bibliography. The software is also modular and highly configurable, allowing implementers to choose system components to best fit their needs. As of March 2012, a total of 64 institutions are running live instances of Vufind including the Georgia Tech Library, the London School of Economics, the National Library of Ireland, Yale University, and the DC Public Library. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VuFind">Wikipedia article: VuFind</a>)

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warc

The Web ARChive (WARC) archive format specifies a method for combining multiple digital resources into an aggregate archive file together with related information. The WARC format is a revision of the Internet Archive's ARC File Format [ARC_IA] that has traditionally been used to store "web crawls" as sequences of content blocks harvested from the World Wide Web. The WARC format generalizes the older format to better support the harvesting, access, and exchange needs of archiving organizations. Besides the primary content currently recorded, the revision accommodates related secondary content, such as assigned metadata, abbreviated duplicate detection events, and later-date transformations. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_ARChive">Wikipedia article: Web ARChive</a>)

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wav

Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension), (also, but rarely, named, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs. It is an application of the RIFF bitstream format method for storing data in "chunks", and thus is also close to the 8SVX and the AIFF format used on Amiga and Macintosh computers, respectively. It is the main format used on Windows systems for raw and typically uncompressed audio. The usual bitstream encoding is the linear pulse-code modulation (LPCM) format. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WAV">Wikipedia article: WAV</a>)

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wayback machine

The Wayback Machine is a digital time capsule created by the Internet Archive non-profit organization, based in San Francisco, California. It is maintained with content from Alexa Internet. This service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time - what the Archive calls a "three dimensional index." Internet Archive bought the domain waybackmachine.org for their own site. It is currently in beta test. (Excerpt from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayback_Machine">Wikipedia article: Wayback Machine</a>)

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wayf

The Shibboleth 'where are you from service' (WAYF) provides the user with a list of institutional identity providers (IdPs) and allows them to choose at which one they wish to authenticate. The WAYF then redirects the user to the chosen IdP. (Excerpt from <a href="http://projects.staffs.ac.uk/suniwe/project/shibboleth.html#Where+Are+Yo... source</a>)

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