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Overview of keyword tags

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This page provides an overview of 596 keyword tags, ordered by trending factor. Column headings allow re-sorting by other criteria. In the expanding tab below you can adjust filters to display sub-sets of keywords and narrow the focus to specific terms of interest (see FAQs on filtering for usage tips). Select this link to remove all filters.

Term Brief description Total articles Total usage Trending factor Charts

born digital

The term born-digital refers to materials that originate in a digital form. This is in contrast to digital reformatting, through which analog materials become digital. It is most often used in relation to digital libraries and the issues that go along with said organizations, such as digital preservation and intellectual property. However, as technologies have advanced and spread, the concept of being born-digital has also been discussed in relation to personal consumer-based sectors, with the rise of e-books and evolving digital music. Other terms that might be encountered as synonymous include "natively digital," "digital-first," and "digital-exclusive. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Born digital)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 1.7%.
30 41

bpel

Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), short for Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is an OASIS standard executable language for specifying actions within business processes with web services. Processes in Business Process Execution Language export and import information by using web service interfaces exclusively. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BPEL)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 6

bpmn

Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a business process model. BPMN was developed by Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI), and is currently maintained by the Object Management Group since the two organizations merged in 2005. As of March 2011, the current version of BPMN is 2.0. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Business Process Modeling Notation)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 2

bs8878

Web accessibility refers to the inclusive practice of making websites usable by people of all abilities and disabilities. When sites are correctly designed, developed and edited, all users can have equal access to information and functionality. For example, when a site is coded with semantically meaningful HTML, with textual equivalents provided for images and with links named meaningfully, this helps blind users using text-to-speech software and/or text-to-Braille hardware. When text and images are large and/or enlargable, it is easier for users with poor sight to read and understand the content. When links are underlined (or otherwise differentiated) as well as coloured, this ensures that color blind users will be able to notice them. When clickable links and areas are large, this helps users who cannot control a mouse with precision. When pages are coded so that users can navigate by means of the keyboard alone, or a single switch access device alone, this helps users who cannot use a mouse or even a standard keyboard. When videos are closed captioned or a sign language version is available, deaf and hard of hearing users can understand the video. When flashing effects are avoided or made optional, users prone to seizures caused by these effects are not put at risk. And when content is written in plain language and illustrated with instructional diagrams and animations, users with dyslexia and learning difficulties are better able to understand the content. When sites are correctly built and maintained, all of these users can be accommodated while not impacting on the usability of the site for non-disabled users. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BS 8878)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
5 38

bsd

Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is a UNIX operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995. Historically, BSD has been considered a branch of UNIX - "BSD UNIX", because it shared the initial codebase and design with the original AT&T UNIX operating system. In the 1980s, BSD was widely adopted by vendors of workstation-class systems in the form of proprietary UNIX variants such as DEC ULTRIX and Sun Microsystems SunOS. This can be attributed to the ease with which it could be licensed, and the familiarity it found among the founders of many technology companies of this era. Though these proprietary BSD derivatives were largely superseded by the UNIX System V Release 4 and OSF/1 systems in the 1990s (both of which incorporated BSD code), later BSD releases provided a basis for several open source development projects that continue to this day. Today, the term "BSD" is often non-specifically used to refer to any of these BSD descendants, e.g., FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD or DragonFly, which together form a branch of the family of Unix-like operating systems. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BSD)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 7

bsd licence

BSD licenses are a family of permissive free software licenses. The original license was used for the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix-like operating system after which it is named. The original owners of BSD were the Regents of the University of California because BSD was first written at the University of California, Berkeley. The first version of the license was revised, and the resulting licenses are more properly called modified BSD licenses. Two variants of the license, the New BSD License/Modified BSD License, and the Simplified BSD License/FreeBSD License have been verified as GPL-compatible free software licenses by the Free Software Foundation, and have been vetted as open source licenses by the Open Source Initiative, while the original, 4-clause license has not been accepted as an open source license and, although the original is considered to be a free software license by the FSF, the FSF does not consider it to be compatible with the GPL due to the advertising clause. The licenses have fewer restrictions on distribution compared to other free software licenses such as the GNU General Public License or even the default restrictions provided by copyright, putting works licensed under them relatively closer to the public domain. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: BSD license)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 1

business process modelling

Business Process Modeling (BPM) in systems engineering and hardware engineering is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed and improved. BPM is typically performed by business analysts and managers who are seeking to improve process efficiency and quality. The process improvements identified by BPM may or may not require Information Technology involvement, although that is a common driver for the need to model a business process, by creating a process master. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Business process modelling)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 2

cache

In computer engineering, a cache is a component that transparently stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster. The data that is stored within a cache might be values that have been computed earlier or duplicates of original values that are stored elsewhere. If requested data is contained in the cache (cache hit), this request can be served by simply reading the cache, which is comparatively faster. Otherwise (cache miss), the data has to be recomputed or fetched from its original storage location, which is comparatively slower. Hence, the more requests can be served from the cache the faster the overall system performance is. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Cache)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 4.1%.
72 411

catalogue index

A catalogue index is a network service that provides access to a machine-generated database of information derived from the content of items in a collection. (Excerpt from JISC Information Environment Glossary)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 1

cd-rom

A CD-ROM (acronym of "Compact Disc Read-only memory") is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. The 1985 'Yellow Book' standard developed by Sony and Philips adapted the format to hold any form of binary data. CD-ROMs are popularly used to distribute computer software, including video games and multimedia applications, though any data can be stored (up to the capacity limit of a disc). Some CDs hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data (such as software or digital video) is only usable on a computer (such as ISO 9660 format PC CD-ROMs). These are called enhanced CDs. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: CD-ROM)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 5.3%.
93 227

cdwa

Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA) describes the content of art databases by articulating a conceptual framework for describing and accessing information about works of art, architecture, other material culture, groups and collections of works, and related images. The CDWA includes 512 categories and subcategories. A small subset of categories are considered core in that they represent the minimum information necessary to identify and describe a work. The CDWA includes discussions, basic guidelines for cataloging, and examples. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: CDWA)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
3 9

cerif

CERIF (Common European Research Information Format) emerged first as a simple standard not unlike a library catalogue card or the present DC (Dublin Core Metadata Standard) and was intended as a data exchange format. It was based on records describing projects, with persons and organisational units as attributes. However, it was soon realised that in practice this CERIF91 standard was inadequate: it was too rigid in format, did not handle repeating groups of information, was not multilingual / multi character set and did not represent in a sufficiently rich way the universe of interest. A new group of experts was convened and CERIF2000 was generated. Its essential features are: (a) it has the concept of objects or entities with attributes such as project, person, organisational unit; (b) it supports n:m relationships between them (and recursively on any of them) using 'linking relations' thus providing rich semantics including roles and time; (c) it is fully internationalised in language and character set; (d) it is extensible without prejudicing the core datamodel thus providing guaranteed interoperability at least at the core level but not precluding even richer intercommunication. It is designed for use both for data exchange (data file transfer) and for heterogeneous distributed query / result environments. With CERIF2004, minor improvements in consistency have been released. With CERIF2006 substantial improvements have been implemented with the model, concerning in particular the introduction of a so-called Semantic Layer, that makes the model flexible and scalable for application in very heterogeneous environments. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 133

character encoding

A character encoding system consists of a code that pairs each character from a given repertoire with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the transmission of data (generally numbers and / or text) through telecommunication networks or storage of text in computers. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Character encoding)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.3%.
6 11

chrome

Google Chrome is a web browser developed by Google that uses the WebKit layout engine. It was first released as a beta version for Microsoft Windows on 2 September 2008, and the public stable release was on 11 December 2008. The name is derived from the graphical user interface frame, or "chrome", of web browsers. As of January 2011, Chrome was the third most widely used browser, and passed the 10% worldwide usage share of web browsers, according to Net Applications. In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome's source code, including its V8 JavaScript engine, as an open source project entitled Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to help convert the browser to the Mac OS X and Linux operating systems. Google also expressed hope that other browsers would adopt V8 to improve web application performance. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license, which allows portions to be incorporated into both open source and closed source software programs. Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open source licenses. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Chrome)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
3 3

cidoc-crm

The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) provides an extensible ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage and museum documentation. It is the international standard (ISO 21127:2006) for the controlled exchange of cultural heritage information. Archives, libraries, museums, and other cultural institutions are encouraged to use the CIDOC CRM to enhance accessibility to museum-related information and knowledge. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.2%.
3 6

cocoa

Cocoa is one of Apple Inc.'s native object-oriented application programming interfaces (APIs) for the Mac OS X operating system and - along with the Cocoa Touch extension for gesture recognition and animation - for applications of iOS on Apple's iPhone and iPad product lines. Cocoa applications are typically developed using the development tools provided by Apple, specifically Xcode (formerly Project Builder) and Interface Builder, using the Objective-C language. However, the Cocoa programming environment can be accessed using other tools, such as Clozure CL, LispWorks, Object Pascal, Python, Perl, Ruby, and AppleScript with the aid of bridging mechanisms such as PasCocoa, PyObjC, CamelBones and RubyCocoa. An implementation of the Ruby language, called MacRuby, which does away with the requirement for a bridging mechanism, is under development by Apple, while Nu is a Lisp-like language which can be used with Cocoa without a bridge. It is also possible to write Objective-C Cocoa programs in a simple text editor and build it manually with GCC or clang from the command line or from a makefile. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Cocoa)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 1

codec

A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal. The word codec is a portmanteau of 'compressor-decompressor' or, more commonly, 'coder-decoder'. A codec (the program) should not be confused with a coding or compression format or standard - a format is a document (the standard), a way of storing data, while a codec is a program (an implementation) which can read or write such files. In practice "codec" is sometimes used loosely to refer to formats, however. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: codec)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 16

collection description

The description of collections is important in the context of network library services and an important underpinning for developing a collective resource. The creation of collection descriptions allows the owners or curators of collections to disclose information about their existence and availability to interested parties. Although collection descriptions may take the form of unstructured textual documents (for example a set of Web pages describing a collection), there are significant advantages in describing collections using structured, open and standardised formats. Such descriptions would enable: users to discover and locate collections of interest; users to perform searches across multiple collections in a controlled way; software to perform such tasks on behalf of users, based on known user preferences. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 2.9%.
50 215

common cartridge

The Common Cartridge defines a new package interchange format for learning content, able to run on any compliant LMS platform. Version 1.0 supports the following features: rich content (html, xml, web links, media files); integrated assessments; discussion forums; authorisation for protected content. (Excerpt from this source)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
1 1

communications protocol

A communications protocol (also known as a network protocol) is a formal description of digital message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications. Protocols may include signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities. A protocol describes the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication and may be implemented in hardware or software, or both. (Excerpt from Wikipedia article: Network protocol)

Percentage of Ariadne articles tagged with this term: 0.1%.
2 2
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by Dr. Radut